Cases reported "Spasm"

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1/49. Previous cholecystectomy and choledochal sphincter spasm after morphine sedation.

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient with probable choledochal sphincter spasm after preoperative morphine, and to suggest a history of cholecystectomy as a predisposing factor. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 60 yr old man for femoral-popliteal artery bypass grafting developed right upper quadrant abdominal pain after preoperative morphine and scopolamine. He had a previous cholecystectomy. His pain was relieved with naloxone. CONCLUSION: Choledochal sphincter spasm should be part of a differential diagnosis in right upper quadrant pain after sedative doses of morphine, especially if there is a previous cholecystectomy.
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2/49. lidocaine toxicity secondary to postoperative bladder instillation in a pediatric patient.

    The intravesical use of local anesthetics has been described for a variety of urologic procedures with no previous reports of toxicity. We recently took care of a 2.5- year-old girl with systemic lidocaine toxicity following treatment for postoperative bladder spasms. The patient developed a generalized seizure requiring endotracheal intubation but recovered fully with supportive care. We report the clinical details of this case as well as a brief review of lidocaine toxicity.
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3/49. Neonatal cricopharyngeal achalasia--a case report.

    Primary neonatal cricopharyngeal achalasia due to a spastic cricopharyngeus muscle manifests itself with intractable feeding difficulties, nasal reflux, recurrent aspiration pneumonia and failure to thrive. There are very few reports of this condition in the literature. In the absence of anatomically demonstrable cause, these children are likely to be labelled as having an impairment of the central-nervous system. This in turn may result in long-term misery with ng-tube feeding, and eventually, the creation of a feeding gastrostomy. A minor operation-- cricopharyngeal myotomy-- has been shown to be safe and curative. It can be performed even if only limited preoperative diagnostic tools are available.
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4/49. Arteriographic demonstration of spontaneous right coronary artery spasm in a patient with Prinzmetal's angina.

    Coronary artery spasm may occur spontaneously during coronary angiography in patients with clinically documented or suspected Prinzmetal's angina. In other patients with Prinzmetal's angina, the spasm can be provoked by the administration of ergonovine. A patient with spontaneous spasm of the right coronary artery during coronary angiography is reported and some considerations for diagnosis and therapy of this entity is offered. Although intraoperative spasm has been reported in the cardiology literature, no such case has been described in the radiology literature.
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5/49. Division of C8 nerve root for treatment of spastic cerebral palsy in the upper limbs: a preliminary report.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of C8 nerve root division on the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy in the upper limbs. methods: Two patients were treated with division of the C8 never root. Supraclavicular incision was made to expose the C5-T1 nerve roots. The intraoperative electromyographic recording technique was used to monitor the responses from the flexor digitorum and flexor carpi ulnaris muscle groups simultaneously. The C5-T1 nerve roots were stimulated and the evoked muscle amplitude potentials (EMAP) were recorded from the muscle groups. The EMAP of the muscle groups obtained during electrical stimulation of the C8 nerve root was the largest, which was used as the basis for C8 nerve root division. RESULTS: Division of the C8 nerve root slightly affected the function of the upper limb, and reduced the muscle tone of the flexor wrist and digitorum. CONCLUSION: Division of the C8 nerve root can reduce the muscle tone of the flexor wrist and digitorum in a short time. The long-term effects need to be followed up further.
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6/49. stiff-person syndrome associated with invasive thymoma: a case report.

    We report a case of a 40-year-old female with continuous muscle stiffness and painful muscle spasms. The symptoms worsened over a two-week period after onset. Electrophysiological examinations revealed continuous muscle discharge, which was markedly reduced by intravenous administration of diazepam. High levels of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies were detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting that the patient suffered from stiff-person syndrome. Steroid pulse therapy and immunoadsorption therapy alleviated the clinical symptoms and decreased the anti-GAD antibody titer. A chest CT revealed the presence of an invasive thymoma. Neither anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies nor symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG) were observed. The patient underwent a thymectomy and postoperative radiotherapy. These treatments further alleviated the clinical symptoms. The present case is the first that associates stiff-person syndrome with invasive thymoma, and not accompanied by MG. The autoimmune mechanism, in this case, may be triggered by the invasive thymoma.
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7/49. Minimal tissue damage after stimulation of the motor thalamus in a case of chorea-acanthocytosis.

    autopsy findings are reported from a patient with chorea-acanthocytosis treated for 2 years by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the motor thalamus. Postoperative testing showed a progressive improvement in axial truncal spasms. Although relatively high currents were used for 2 years in this patient, postmortem analysis showed minimal tissue damage in the vicinity of the electrode tip. It is concluded that DBS has little impact on the surrounding tissues.
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8/49. Spasm of left main coronary artery.

    A 46-year-old male patient with atypical angina pectoris appeared to have an important elongated stenosis of the left main coronary artery on coronary arteriography, and slight irregularities in the left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries. A saphenous vein bypass graft to the left anterior descending artery was performed, and this relieved the patient's symptoms. Postoperative coronary arteriography demonstrated a widely patent left main coronary artery and graft. The original narrowing of the left main coronary artery was probably caused by spasm and the source of the patient's anginal symptom.
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9/49. Anaesthetic complications associated with myotonia congenita: case study and comparison with other myotonic disorders.

    myotonia congenita (MC) is caused by a defect in the skeletal muscle chloride channel function, which may cause sustained membrane depolarisation. We describe a previously healthy 32-year-old woman who developed a life-threatening muscle spasm and secondary ventilation difficulties following a preoperative injection of suxamethonium. The muscle spasms disappeared spontaneously and the surgery proceeded without further problems. When subsequently questioned, she reported minor symptoms suggesting a myotonic condition. Myotonia was found on clinical examination and EMG. The diagnosis MC was confirmed genetically. Neither the patient nor the anaesthetist were aware of the diagnosis before this potentially lethal complication occurred. We give a brief overview of ion channel disorders including malignant hyperthermia and their anaesthetic considerations.
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10/49. Oblique sagittal magnetic resonance imaging visualizing vascular compression of the trigeminal or facial nerve.

    An oblique sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method was developed to provide better visualization of vascular compression of nerves. The MR images of 12 patients with trigeminal neuralgia and 24 with hemifacial spasm were analyzed. The oblique sagittal views were obtained along the nerve identified by the axial view at an angle of 105 degrees between the line along the dorsal brain stem and the line along the margin of the pontomedullary junction (in patients with hemifacial spasm) or by the midsagittal view through the midpons (in patients with trigeminal neuralgia). The T1- and T2-weighted, proton-density, and/or gradient-echo MR images were evaluated to optimize imaging conditions. The oblique sagittal gradient-echo MR image most clearly visualized vascular compression of the nerves as high-intensity lines in six patients with trigeminal neuralgia, which was confirmed intraoperatively in four. Fifteen (75%) of 20 oblique sagittal gradient-echo MR images demonstrated vascular compression of the facial nerves in patients with hemifacial spasm; 12 of these were confirmed intraoperatively. The control study used 15 oblique sagittal gradient-echo MR images of nonaffected contralateral and normal sites. Four false-positive findings were found. Oblique sagittal gradient-echo MR images are a useful planning aid, allowing differential diagnosis prior to microvascular decompression in trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm.
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