Cases reported "Spasm"

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1/11. Spasmodic dysphonia combined with insufficient glottic closure by phonation.

    The authors describe the case history of a patient who suffered from symptoms deriving from two different origins. The patient's voice was spasmodic dysphonia-like interrupted and pressed. At the same time, his voice was powerless, too. The reason for this was that besides the spasmodic dysphonia caused by hyperkinesis, an incomplete closure of the vocal cords during phonation in the middle third was present. It was caused by the atrophy of the vocal cords. In order to eliminate the symptoms, initially we injected 25 IU Botox into the left vocal cord transcutaneously under the direction of EMG control. It resulted in a fluent, though breathy voice. In order to manage the closing insufficiency during phonation, we performed lipoaugmentation on the left vocal cord under high-frequency jet anaesthesia. The result of the two-step procedure was a fluent and clear voice. The speech without interruption lasted for 5 months, until the drug was eliminated. Of course, to prolong the result, the Botox injection should be repeated.
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keywords = voice
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2/11. The swallowing and voicing characteristics of pharyngeal dystonia: a single case report.

    This paper describes the swallowing difficulty and abnormal voicing characteristics of a subject with pharyngeal dystonia. This rare form of dystonia, considered to be a neurological condition resulting in involuntary spasm of the muscles of the pharynx, has not been documented in terms of its effects on the acoustic properties of the voice. This study revealed that during pharyngeal spasm, there are significant delays in voice onset time, a reduction in fundamental frequency, an increased percentage of sub-harmonics and variability in the amplitude perturbation quotient as well as shimmer. There was also evidence of these characteristics during periods of 'spasm-free' voice production, suggesting that the condition might be more consistent than what the subject described. Resonance disturbances were observed in spasm, which might explain the 'hollow' and affected voice quality. The subject also reported severe swallowing difficulties during the periods of spasm, characterised by a tight constriction at the level of the subject's throat. It is clear that an abnormality at the level of the cricopharyngeal muscle has a dual effect on the acoustic properties of the voice and on swallowing.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = voice
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3/11. Singer's dystonia: first report of a variant of spasmodic dysphonia.

    OBJECTIVES: We discuss the phonatory characteristics of a previously undescribed focal laryngeal dystonia present in the singing voice. methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 5 patients with singer's dystonia at a neurolaryngology referral center. RESULTS: Four patients reviewed demonstrated phonatory characteristics consistent with adductor spasmodic dysphonia present in their singing voice. One patient demonstrated abductor spasmodic dysphonia in the singing voice. Each patient initially exhibited normal connected speech in conversational voicing. The treatment protocol and outcome are discussed, including the use of botulinum toxin. CONCLUSIONS: Singer's dystonia is a previously undescribed neurologic disorder that should be understood by those who treat voice performers and voice disorders.
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keywords = voice
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4/11. Treatment of adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia by surgical myectomy: a preliminary report.

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the belief that it represents a central neurologic dysfunctional process, adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia without tremor is usually effectively treated by injection of botulinum toxin A; however, in most cases such injections must be repeated every few months. A promising new surgical procedure is herein reported. methods: Under local anesthesia with intravenous sedation, a large laryngoplasty window is created, and under direct vision with intraoperative voice monitoring, fibers from the thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles are removed until breathiness occurs. The two sides are staged; that is, one side is done at a time, with surgery on the second side being performed 3 to 6 months after that on the first side, if needed. RESULTS: This was a retrospective, unblinded study of 5 patients who underwent myectomy of the thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles. The preliminary results show improved voice fluency in all patients at 5 to 19 months of follow-up. There was no period of prolonged breathiness or dysphagia in any of the patients, and there were no surgical complications. CONCLUSIONS: Myectomy of the thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles is a promising new surgical treatment for adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia that may effectively mimic "permanent" botulinum toxin injections.
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keywords = voice
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5/11. magnetic resonance imaging findings and correlations in spasmodic dysphonia patients.

    A sample of 19 spasmodic dysphonia (SD) patients was selected from a larger population of such patients to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), auditory brain stem response (ABR) testing, speech analysis, and extensive physical examination. Six patients had abnormal spin-echo MRI findings, ranging from infarcts within the basal ganglia to demyelinating lesions within the supralateral angles of the lateral ventricles. A weakly positive correlation was noted between the abnormal MRI findings and an abnormal ABR. The lack of a significant correlation between the MRI findings and other predictors of brain stem and midbrain disease, and the current spatial resolution limitations of MRI, suggest that we are visualizing the associated lesions rather than the actual foci of SD. The range of MRI findings is consistent with the concept that SD is a voice disorder in a heterogeneous patient population.
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keywords = voice
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6/11. Spastic dysphonia and essential (voice) tremor treated with primidone.

    primidone has been reported to be effective in reducing tremor in patients with benign essential tremor. There is at least one report that suggests that the medication may reduce voice tremor, a frequent component of the essential tremor syndrome. Three patients with spastic dysphonia of essential (voice) tremor and one with more typical essential (voice) tremor were treated with primidone and experienced no alleviation in the voice signs. The side effects experienced by all patients were consistent with those noted in previous reports. primidone does not seem to be effective in treating essential voice tremor or spastic dysphonia of essential voice tremor.
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keywords = voice
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7/11. Familial dwarfism and painful muscle spasms.

    We report a family with a disorder characterized by limbs and truncal undulating painful muscle spasms, short stature, fine and sparse hair in the scalp, absence of body hair, low implanted ears, big nose, pitched voice, enlarged heart ventricles and increased fasting glucose levels. Symptoms began in childhood and did not progress after the third decade of life. This disorder represents a new clinical phenotype among the several forms of dwarfism associated with neurological manifestations already described in the literature.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = voice
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8/11. Longitudinal phonatory characteristics after botulinum toxin type A injection.

    Following Botulinum Toxin Type A injection, glottal competency of an adductor spasmodic dysphonia patient is thought to vary over a wide range. This study quantifies variability in laryngeal adduction for one such patient over a 10-week period. Analyses of kinematic and aerodynamic measures were used to track the voice weekly. The measures included the electroglottographic waveform width (EGGW50), nondimensional electroglottographic slope quotient (SLQ), glottal flow open quotient (FOQ), dc glottal flow, and nondimensional glottal flow peak quotient (FPQ). The results suggested that change in degree of glottal adduction over time can be observed even when vocal instability is present within each recording session. Perceptual ratings of vocal quality (breathy to pressed) were related to the laryngeal measures. The coefficient of variation for EGGW50 and the percentage of dichrotic phonations reached minima during sessions with predominantly breathy and hypoadducted phonation. The methods used in this study show potential to aid decisions about dose level and sources of perceptual adductor spasmodic dysphonia symptoms for a given patient.
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keywords = voice
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9/11. Muscle tension dysphonia and spasmodic dysphonia: the role of manual laryngeal tension reduction in diagnosis and management.

    Excessive activity of the extralaryngeal muscles affects laryngeal function and contributes to a spectrum of interrelated symptoms and syndromes including muscle tension dysphonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Recognition of the role of extralaryngeal tension is helpful in ensuring proper diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment. This report demonstrates the application of manual laryngeal musculoskeletal tension reduction techniques in the diagnosis and management of laryngeal hyperfunction syndromes. The manual technique consists of focal palpation to determine 1) extent of laryngeal elevation, 2) focal tenderness, 3) voice effect of applying downward pressure over the superior border of the thyroid lamina, and 4) extent of sustained voice improvement following circum-laryngeal massage. The clinical utility of this innovative approach is discussed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = voice
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10/11. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia: case reports with acoustic analysis following botulinum toxin injection and acupuncture.

    We analyzed frequency and duration parameters of voice and speech in two men with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD). One was treated with botulinum toxin injection; the other received acupuncture therapy. Improvement after acupuncture therapy in terms of standard deviation of fundamental frequency, acoustic perturbation measurements, durational measurements of voice and speech, and spectrographic analysis was comparable to the results achieved with botulinum toxin injection. Voice and speech parameters were stable 1 year after acupuncture therapy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = voice
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