Cases reported "Sphingolipidoses"

Filter by keywords:

Retrieving documents. Please wait...

1/25. A novel mutation in the coding region of the prosaposin gene leads to a complete deficiency of prosaposin and saposins, and is associated with a complex sphingolipidosis dominated by lactosylceramide accumulation.

    A fatal infantile storage disorder with hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurological disease is described. sphingolipids, including monohexosylceramides (mainly glucosylceramide), dihexosylceramides (mainly lactosylceramide), globotriaosyl ceramide, sulphatides, ceramides and globotetraosyl ceramide, were stored in the tissues. In general, cholesterol and sphingomyelin levels were unaltered. The storage process was generalized and affected a number of cell types, with histiocytes, which infiltrated a number of visceral organs and the brain, especially involved. The ultrastructure of the storage lysosomes was membranous with oligolamellar, mainly vesicular, profiles. Infrequently, there were Gaucher-like lysosomes in histiocytes. The neuropathology was severe and featured neuronal storage and loss with a massive depopulation of cortical neurons and pronounced fibrillary astrocytosis. There was a paucity of myelin and stainable axons in the white matter with signs of active demyelination. Immunohistochemical investigations indicated that saposins A, B, C and D were all deficient. The patient was homozygous for a 1 bp deletion (c.803delG) within the SAP-B domain of the prosaposin gene which leads to a frameshift and premature stop codon. In the heterozygous parents, mutant cDNA was detected by amplification refractory mutation analysis in the nuclear, but not the cytoplasmic, fraction of fibroblast rna, indicating that the mutant mRNA was rapidly degraded. The storage process in the proband resembled that of a published case from an unrelated family. saposins were also deficient in this case, leading to its reclassification as prosaposin deficiency, and her mother was found to be a carrier for the same c.803delG mutation. Both of the investigated families came from the same district of eastern slovakia. ( info)

2/25. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD, OMIM 272200) is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy associated with the deficiency of several, in total seven, sulfatases. The disorder is clinically and biochemically variable. The clinical picture combines features of mucopolysaccharidosis and metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD, OMIM 250100) in a variable spectrum. Here we report a 3-year old Iranian girl with an MLD-like presentation of MSD. Arylsulfatase A deficiency and sulfatide excretion were found. Differently from what was previously reported in Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD, OMIM 272200) is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy associated with the deficiency of several, in total seven, sulfatases. The disorder is clinically and biochemically variable. The clinical picture combines features of mucopolysaccharidosis and metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD, OMIM 250100) in a variable spectrum. Here we report a 3-year old Iranian girl with an MLD-like presentation of MSD. Arylsulfatase A deficiency and sulfatide excretion the literature, this girl never showed abnormal mucopolysaccharide excretion in the urine. There were no additional visceral or skeletal signs. She was originally diagnosed as having MLD. Only when she developed ichthyosis were seven additional sulfatases measured. In leukocytes, arylsulfatase A, steroid sulfatase and N-acetylglucosamine-6 sulfatase were profoundly deficient, while iduronate-2 sulfatase and arylsulfatase B were moderately reduced. In fibroblasts, N-acetylglucosamine-6 sulfatase was deficient, while arylsulfatase A was moderately reduced. This case illustrates the possible pitfalls in the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of MSD. ( info)

3/25. Application of delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for analysis of sphingolipids in cultured skin fibroblasts from sphingolipidosis patients.

    sphingolipidoses are caused by defects of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of sphingolipids. Using delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DE MALDI-TOF-MS), we analyzed sphingolipids in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with sphingolipidoses, including: (a) Farber disease (FD, acid ceramidase deficiency); (b) gaucher disease (GD); (c) Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPDC); and (d) GM1-gangliosidosis (GM1G). Crude lipids were extracted from about 50 mg wet weight of cultured skin fibroblasts. After mild alkaline treatment, a sphingolipid fraction was prepared from the crude lipids and analyzed by DE MALDI-TOF-MS. The results were as follows: (a) in fibroblasts from the FD patient, the ceramide/sphingomyelin and ceramide/monohexosylceramide ratios were both significantly high; (b) in the GD patient, the glucosylceramide/sphingomyelin ratio was increased; on the other hand; (c) in the NPDC patient, the monohexosylceramide/sphingomyelin ratio was within normal range; and (d) in the GM1G patient, no specific data were obtained. sphingolipids in cultured fibroblasts can be evaluated by DE MALDI-TOF-MS, whereas GM1-ganglioside or its asialo derivatives are not detectable. With this DE MALDI-TOF-MS method, ceramide or monohexosylceramide accumulating in cultured fibroblasts from cases of sphingolipidoses, such as FD and GD, respectively, can be easily detected. ( info)

4/25. Mild ichthyosis in a 4-year-old boy with multiple sulphatase deficiency.

    We report a 4-year-old boy with multiple sulphatase deficiency (MSD). His early health was good. By the end of his first year there were concerns about developmental delay but by 26 months he showed clear evidence of regression in that he was barely able to sit unsupported and had lost all fine motor and communication skills. At that time he also had widespread mild ichthyosis that cleared completely with the use of emollients. The neurological deterioration suggested a diagnosis of metachromatic leucodystrophy, and a reduction in the leucocyte arylsulphatase A activity was detected. The ichthyosis suggested steroid sulphatase deficiency, and a reduction in the leucocyte steroid sulphatase activity was detected. The enzyme deficiency was much less marked for steroid sulphatase than for arylsulphatase A in this boy. This diversity in enzyme activities is typical of MSD and correlates with the mild ichthyosis in this child. This case shows that even mild ichthyosis should prompt measurement of steroid sulphatase activity in a child of either sex with unexplained neurological deterioration. ( info)

5/25. An unusual case of phospholipidosis.

    We present the results of a structural, histochemical and lipid-chromatographic study of tissues obtained at postmortem from an unusual case of phospholipidosis. A previous biopsy of the appendix and liver (Elleder et al., 1975a) had revealed a predominance of phosphoglyceride storage, principally of lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) postmortem material showed that this lipid was stored exclusively in central neurons. In the spleen and the lymph node, however, sphingomyelin (SP) was shown, histochemically and chromatographically, to be the main lipid stored. Total sphingomyelinase (SPase) activity in the appendix was reduced to about 50% of normal. Neuroaxonal dystrophy (nad) and a conspicuous discrepancy between the degree of distension of some neurons and their lipid content deserve special mention. The case is contrasted with classical sphingomyelinosis; the complexity of the Niemann-Pick group of diseases is discussed as an indication of the difficulties of classification of any atypical case. ( info)

6/25. A case of Farber disease.

    We report a case of Farber disease (farber lipogranulomatosis). The main features were a shrill voice, joint swelling, subcutaneous nodules and retarded psychomotor development. Cytological investigation revealed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies characteristic of Farber disease. Lipid analysis of liver tissue indicated an accumulation of ceramide containing non-hydroxy fatty acids. It was found that the acid ceramidase activity in the liver was reduced to 31% of the control value. In this patient there was also persistent diarrhea, cholelithiasis, transient proteinuria and increased urinary total sialic acids. These features have not been noted in previously reported cases. ( info)

7/25. Difficulty in recognizing multiple sulfatase deficiency in an infant.

    We describe the difficulty in recognizing multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] database No. 272200) in an infant. MSD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the posttranslational activation of various sulfatase enzymes. It is both biochemically and clinically variable. Currently, there are 12 known sulfatases in humans, and the clinical presentation of MSD is a unique composite of those individual enzyme defects. Here we report a black girl who presented with bilateral broad thumbs and great toes, both with angulation deformities at birth. rubinstein-taybi syndrome (OMIM No. 180849) was considered initially. The detection of inclusion bodies in her white blood cells at 37 months of age led to the appropriate diagnostic workups for lysosomal storage diseases. Elevation of urine mucopolysaccharides provided additional clues, and the fibroblast enzyme assays finally established the diagnosis. Broad thumbs and great toes are rare features of MSD, and to the best of our knowledge such a bilateral congenital anomaly with angulation deformities has never been reported before to be associated with MSD. ( info)

8/25. A new type of mucolipidosis associated with hereditary thrombocytopathy and color blindness.

    autopsy findings of a 22-year-old Japanese male who showed the symptoms of both mucopolysaccharidosis and sphingolipidosis are reported. The patient had a gargoyle-like face, bone change with cherry-red spot and absence of mucopolysacchariduria, and moreover accompanied by hereditary thrombocytopathy and color blindness. autopsy findings were almost the same as those of mucopolysaccharidosis, histochemically and electron microscopically. Unique findings were, however, present in the hepatocytes, another inclusion containing dense fine granuloreticular structures was found electron microscopically. Some foamy cells in the lymph nodes, liver including sinusiodal cells, bone marrow and spleen contained intracytoplasmic sudanophilic substance in the form of moderate electron dense globules by electron microscopy. The outstanding finding of the enzymatic activity was the decrease of beta-galactosidase in the liver and brain. ( info)

9/25. Electron microscopy of skin and peripheral blood lymphocytes in infantile (Santavuori) neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    skin punch biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocyte preparations from two siblings with early infantile (Santavuori) neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis have been examined by electron microscopy. In both cases characteristic osmiophilic inclusion bodies were found in various cells in the skin and in lymphocytes. In one case, lymphocyte inclusions were detected before the onset of any symptoms as a result of a family study. This indicates the possibility of screening lymphocytes of siblings of affected patients as a result of a family study. This indicates the possibility of screening lymphocytes of siblings of affected patients with a view to early detection of the disorder. ( info)

10/25. Sphingolipid activator protein deficiency in a 16-week-old atypical gaucher disease patient and his fetal sibling: biochemical signs of combined sphingolipidoses.

    We describe a patient who presented shortly after birth with hyperkinetic behaviour, myoclonia, respiratory insufficiency and hepatosplenomegaly. Gaucher-like storage cells were found in bone marrow. A liver biopsy showed massive lysosomal storage morphologically different to that in known lipid storage disorders. Biochemically, the patient had partial deficiencies of beta-galactocerebrosidase, beta-glucocerebrosidase and ceramidase in skin fibroblast extracts, but the sphingomyelinase activity was normal. Glucosyl ceramide and ceramide were elevated in liver tissue. Loading of cultured fibroblasts with radioactive sphingolipid precursors indicated a profound defect in ceramide catabolism. Immunological studies in fibroblasts showed a total absence of cross-reacting material to sphingolipid activator protein 2 (SAP-2). The patient died at 16 weeks of age. The fetus from his mother's next pregnancy was similarly affected. The possibility that the disorder results from a primary defect at the level of SAP-2 is discussed. We have named this unique disorder SAP deficiency. ( info)
| Next ->

Leave a message about 'Sphingolipidoses'

We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.