Cases reported "spina bifida occulta"

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1/290. The use of Gore-Tex membrane for adhesion prevention in tethered spinal cord surgery: technical case reports.

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of retethering caused by postoperative adhesions at the repair site after initial tethered spinal cord surgery is not uncommon. To assess the effectiveness of a Gore-Tex membrane in preventing these adhesions, only clinical radiological and experimental animal evaluation has been reported. In this report, we describe two cases in which Gore-Tex membrane was implanted at the initial untethering surgery and in which we were able to confirm the real effectiveness of the Gore-Tex membrane during a second operation. methods: In the first patient, Gore-Tex membrane was used for dural repair in the untethering surgery of the split spinal cord malformation. Because of the suspicion of a thickened filum terminale, repeated surgery was indicated 10 months after the initial procedure. In the second patient, Gore-Tex membrane was implanted during the initial untethering surgery for a lipomyeloschisis and a dermal sinus. Because of a persistent fistula of the dermal sinus, a second operation was necessary 1 year after the first operation. RESULTS: During the repeated surgery, a thorough inspection of the implanted Gore-Tex membrane revealed no adhesions between the Gore-Tex membrane and the intradural content in both cases. CONCLUSION: We support the use of Gore-Tex membrane in the prevention of postoperative dural adhesions in the repair of spinal dysraphism. ( info)

2/290. Syntax PAL: a system to improve the written syntax of language-impaired users.

    In our work with children who have difficulty with spelling or with the physical action of writing, we have found a number of children who also have difficulty with written grammar. As an extension of PAL, an existing predictive spelling and typing aid, we have developed a writing aid to help these children with sentence construction. The enhanced system uses the syntax of the initial part of a sentence to enhance the position in the prediction list of syntactically correct words. It was postulated that this would discourage the use of incorrect syntax and encourage the use of correct syntax. In two case studies, the use of Syntax PAL significantly improved the quality and quantity of one child's written output, but had little effect on the other child's work. ( info)

3/290. Fetal neurenteric cyst causing hydrops: case report and review of the literature.

    Routine prenatal ultrasound revealed a unilocular cystic mass associated with upper thoracic hemivertebrae that grew to 6 cm at 28 weeks and was associated with hydrops. A thoraco-amniotic shunt decompressed the cyst and resolved the hydrops, but the shunt occluded 17 days later. Preterm labour led to vaginal delivery at 31 2/7 weeks. Postnatally, the cyst was decompressed by thoracentesis due to respiratory distress. It was resected on day four of life. Severe tracheobronchomalacia was present post-operatively, presumably due to prenatal mass effect of the cyst. At one year of age, the child has recovered completely without adverse respiratory or neurological sequelae. ( info)

4/290. Cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis (Cobb syndrome) with tethered cord.

    A newborn presented with a skin-covered lumbar mass with a subcutaneous hemangioma and on a magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed a tethered spinal cord with a local mass. The mass had signal characteristics compatible with a lipoma. An initial diagnosis of a lipomeningocele with tethered cord was made, and the patient underwent surgical exploration and subtotal resection of the mass. A follow-up MRI revealed that the cord was still tethered, but an additional mass was present. The initial mass with signal characteristics of lipomatous tissue was accompanied by a low-signal mass in the lumbosacral canal, ventral to the cord, and bilateral enlargement of the foramina at the lumbosacral level. Because of a concern for an intraspinal tumor, a second operative intervention was performed. Multiple biopsies of the mass inside the spinal cord, the nerve roots and at the level of the foramina revealed angiomas that had similar pathology in all the specimens. A partial resection of the masses and a release of the tethered cord was performed by sectioning the thickened filum terminale. The diagnosis of Cobb's syndrome was made. The unique association of a tethered cord and the Cobb syndrome is reported here. ( info)

5/290. Intramedullary spinal teratoma and diastematomyelia. Case report and review of the literature.

    The authors present a patient with diastematomyelia and a spinal intramedullary teratoma, remote from the split cord malformation. A split cord malformation at the L2-L3 level was initially discovered during investigations for thoracic congenital scoliosis, and this was treated surgically. The teratoma, which was at the level of the scoliosis, went undiagnosed until neurological deterioration occurred many years later. Surgical removal of the teratoma resulted in return to normal function. The potential for coexisting congenital anomalies at separate levels of the spinal cord must be considered in radiological investigations of a developmental spinal lesion. ( info)

6/290. Dermal sinus and intramedullary spinal cord abscess. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Intramedullary abscesses of the spinal cord are uncommon. Most of them occur in association with heart, pulmonary or urogenital infections. We report two cases of intramedullary spinal cord abscesses secondary to congenital dermal sinus. Only 14 cases of such an association have previously been reported. In our cases, dermal sinus was associated with an epidermoid tumour. The clinical presentation, pathogenesis, magnetic resonance imaging findings, surgical management and outcome are discussed. ( info)

7/290. Coexistent neurenteric cyst and enterogenous cyst. Further support for a common embryologic error.

    The authors describe common embryological pathways responsible for coexistent neurenteric and enterogenous cysts in a patient with spinal dysraphism. ( info)

8/290. 3D spiral CT imaging of bone anomalies in a case of diastematomyelia.

    The case of a 48-year-old woman, suffering from a diastematomyelia, is presented. This case and the diagnostic findings are used to demonstrate the demands on imaging methods with respect to a new classification of split cord malformations (SCMs) recently published. Although MRI is the method of choice for imaging of the spinal cord generally, only X-ray methods and especially conventional computer tomography provide the information necessary for correct classification of SCMs. Additional 3D-reconstructions from suitable CT-data are helpful in visualizing complex anomalies of bony structures found in most cases of SCM. ( info)

9/290. Plexiform neurofibroma of the cauda equina. Case report.

    Plexiform neurofibroma of the cauda equina has been reported only twice previously. The authors report the first pediatric patient in whom such a tumor has been found. A 4-year-old boy presented with low-back pain that radiated bilaterally into the L-4 and L-5 dermatomes. A dermal sinus noted at the midthoracic level was surrounded by a hemangiomatous lesion. magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of the dermal sinus and revealed a well-defined lumbosacral mass that showed heterogeneous intensity with irregular enhancement. Intraoperatively, a solid mass, which engulfed the entire cauda equina, could not be dissected from the roots. The dermal sinus tract, however, was excised from the thoracic spine. The patient underwent radiotherapy to control the tumor and relieve his pain. Plexiform neurofibromas of the cauda equina are characterized by an insidious and progressive clinical course. The tumor mass may engulf all the roots of the cauda equina. No plexiform neurofibroma of the cauda equina has been reported to be associated with neurofibromatosis Type 1. The authors assume that the thoracic-level dermal sinus observed in this child was an incidental finding. ( info)

10/290. Anomaly of the axis causing cervical myelopathy. Case report.

    Although the craniovertebral junction is one of the most common sites at which anomalies develop, spina bifida occulta of the axis (C-2) associated with cervical myelopathy is extremely rare. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old man who developed progressive tetraparesis caused by a cervical canal stenosis at the level of the axis. The spinal cord was compressed by an invaginated bifid lamina of the axis. The patient made a remarkable recovery after undergoing decompressive laminectomy of C-3 and removal of the bifid posterior arch of the axis. ( info)
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