Cases reported "Spinal Cord Compression"

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1/114. Spinal arachnoid cyst with weakness in the limbs and abdominal pain.

    A 7-year-old male admitted with neck rigidity, severe pain in the abdomen, and progressive weakness in the lower limbs was diagnosed as having a spinal intramedullary arachnoid cyst. There was a dramatic and immediate recovery after fenestration of the cyst.
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2/114. Treatment of cervical compressive myelopathy with a new dorsolateral decompressive procedure.

    OBJECT: A new dorsolateral decompressive procedure involving a unilateral approach has been devised for the treatment of cervical compressive myelopathy. In this operation, the posterior spinal elements of the contralateral side are not disturbed, and thus, postoperative deformity of the cervical spine can be avoided. Following decompressive surgery via the unilateral approach, the cervical spine was kept more stable compared with the results obtained after wide laminectomy or other expansive laminoplasty procedures. methods: Twenty-six patients underwent dorsolateral decompressive surgery, and the patients' clinical and radiological results were examined during the follow-up period to evaluate neurological function and postoperative deformities of the cervical spine. The underlying conditions for myelopathy were cervical spondylosis (19 patients), ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (three patients), and ossification of yellow ligament (four patients). The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 110 months (average 35.5 months). Functional recovery, which was rated by using the Japanese Orthopaedic association scoring system, was an average of 56% in all patients (100% being equal to full recovery). The recovery rate was compatible with those attained after other expansive laminoplasty procedures. Radiographically, progression to swan-neck or kyphotic deformity was not observed in any patient. No postoperative spinal instability was noted. Based on computerized tomography myelograph evaluation, the average transectional area of the dural tube at the C4-5 level was expanded from 122 mm2 to 169 mm2, and the transectional area of the spinal cord at the C4-5 level was expanded from 39.6 mm2 to 52.9 mm2 after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that this operative procedure could be used as a new option for the treatment of cervical compressive myelopathy.
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3/114. Cervical cord compression caused by a pillow in a postlaminectomy patient undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    A 66-year-old man, who had undergone osteoplastic laminectomy for posttraumatic cervical myelopathy, underwent a second operation in which the replaced laminae were removed because of postoperative deep wound infection. Follow-up dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with flexion and extension views of the neck 1 year postsurgery demonstrated that the cervical cord was markedly compressed from behind in the extended position, although a wide subarachnoid space was observed in this region when the neck was in the flexed position. The cause of cord compression was the pillow that was placed underneath the patient's neck for maintaining the extended position, not the neck extension itself. This finding indicates that care must be taken during neuroradiological examination not to place a pillow under the neck of a patient who has undergone laminectomy. Nuchal compression could lead to cervical cord injury after laminectomy. Laminoplasty benefits the patient by protecting the cervical cord from secondary injury.
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4/114. Cervical subarachnoid hematoma of unknown origin: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hematoma is rare, having been reported in the English literature in only seven other cases. We describe the first case of spontaneous subarachnoid hematoma located in the cervical spinal cord of a 43-year-old man. The pathologic examination showed no apparent source of bleeding, but there was evidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient presented with a 10-day history of severe neck pain, followed by the onset of quadriparesis that was more evident on the left side, urinary retention, and sensory loss below C5. His medical history included hypertension. magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive hemorrhage in the cervical spinal canal. INTERVENTION: A C4-C5 subarachnoid hematoma was removed. The patient died due to respiratory distress and uncontrollable hypotension on day 6 after surgery. Surgical exploration, neuroradiologic examinations, and autopsy showed no evidence of vascular malformations, tumors, or other possible sources of bleeding. CONCLUSION: After excluding more common causes of spontaneous subarachnoid hematoma in this patient, we suggest that chronic spinal cord compression (spondylotic myelopathy) and arterial hypertension in this patient may have caused the pathogenesis of this rare clinical entity. Experimental data supporting this hypothesis are discussed.
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5/114. Missed cervical spine fracture: chiropractic implications.

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the case of a patient with an anterior compression fracture of the cervical spine, which had been overlooked on initial examination. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 36-year-old man was seen at a chiropractic clinic 1 month after diving into the ocean and hitting his head on the ocean floor. He chipped a tooth but denied loss of consciousness. Initial medical examination in the emergency department did not include radiography, but an anti-inflammatory medication was prescribed. Radiographs taken at the chiropractic clinic 1 month later revealed an anterior compression fracture of the C7 vertebra, with migration of the fragment noted on flexion and extension views. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: The patient was referred back to his medical doctor for further evaluation and management.He was instructed to wear a philadelphia collar for 4 weeks. During this time period, he reported "shooting" pain and tingling from his neck into his arms. The patient reported resolution of his neck and arm symptoms at 2.5 months after injury. Follow-up radiographs at 6 months after injury revealed fusion of the fracture fragment with mild residual deformity. At that time, the patient began a course of chiropractic treatment. CONCLUSION: After head trauma, it is essential to obtain a radiograph of the cervical spine to rule out fracture. Chiropractors should proceed with caution, regardless of any prior medical or ancillary evaluation, before commencing cervical spine manipulation after head and neck trauma.
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6/114. Extensive cervical laminoplasty for patients with long segment OPLL in the cervical spine: an alternative to the anterior approach.

    We investigated treatment of long segment cervical OPLL by posterior decompression using a laminoplasty technique. Our aim was to both decompress the spinal cord and also to preserve neck motion. There were 38 patients treated by this posterior approach. Twenty-eight patients underwent C1-C7 expanding laminoplasty, 4 patients underwent C1-T1 expanding laminoplasty, and 6 patients C2-C7 expanding laminoplasty. The transverse width of the open-door laminoplasty was sufficient to achieve decompression of not only the spinal cord but also the nerve root outlets at each laminoplasty level. There were no complications related to this surgical technique, nor late deterioration in the mean follow up period of 4. 5 years. We propose expanding laminoplasty as an important option for the treatment of long segment cervical OPLL.
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7/114. Malignant triton tumor in the thoracic spine.

    We present a 15-year-old patient diagnosed with peripheral neurofibromatosis (NF-1), who was admitted with paraparesis caused by a large intrathoracic tumor with an intracanalicular component that affected the spinal cord. After surgery his condition improved, but a year later he suffered a relapse and died. Histologically the tumor was diagnosed as malignant with neurogenic and myogenic differentiation ("malignant triton tumor"). Malignant triton tumors (MTT) are infrequent; those found in the head and neck and the upper or lower extremities have a better prognosis than those in the retroperitoneum, buttock, or trunk. It is not clear whether this variation is due to a difference in tumor grade, stage, or resectability, or whether it is a consequence of therapy.
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8/114. The crowned dens syndrome: a rare form of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.

    The crowned dens syndrome has been termed as acute neck pain ascribed to CPPD deposits associated with a tomographic appearance of calcification surrounding the odontoid process. This rare entity resulting in cervical cord compression is generally seen in older female patients. We present a 26-year-old woman with cervical cord compression due to massive calcification in the periodontoid area and discuss the X-ray and CT findings of the disease.
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9/114. Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma of a 10-month-old male: a clinical note.

    Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma (TSEH) is rare in children. Only three cases of TSEH were documented in the pediatric literature. This clinical note presents an infant with TSEH but no risk factors. Without magnetic resonance imaging examination, children with TSEH and minor symptoms may be missed and under reported. Signs such as irritability and neck pain should alert the clinician to consider TSEH and the need for urgent magnetic resonance imaging of the spine for early diagnosis and treatment to minimize morbidity.
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10/114. Metastatic testicular cancer presenting as spinal cord compression: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Testicular cancers are heterogenous neoplasms often found in young adults. They tend to metastasize to the chest, retroperitoneum, or neck, but rarely to the long bones or skeleton. However, they can cause neurologic compromise and should be considered in young male patients who present with symptoms of a spine lesion and no known primary cancer. methods: Two patients presented with back pain and a rapid progression of lower extremity weakness. Both underwent radiographic workup and emergency surgery. Metastatic workup revealed testicular cancer and widespread metastases. RESULTS: Both patients improved neurologically after surgery, but neither regained the ability to ambulate independently. They both underwent chemotherapy. One patient is alive at 1 year follow-up; the other died 9 months after surgery of widespread metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Vertebral metastases from testicular tumors, although rare, should be considered in young men presenting with spinal cord compression. work-up should include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine and computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Urgent intervention may be required, as these two cases show that loss of neurologic function can be rapid and permanent.
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