Cases reported "Spinal Cord Compression"

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11/338. Cervical cord compression caused by a pillow in a postlaminectomy patient undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    A 66-year-old man, who had undergone osteoplastic laminectomy for posttraumatic cervical myelopathy, underwent a second operation in which the replaced laminae were removed because of postoperative deep wound infection. Follow-up dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with flexion and extension views of the neck 1 year postsurgery demonstrated that the cervical cord was markedly compressed from behind in the extended position, although a wide subarachnoid space was observed in this region when the neck was in the flexed position. The cause of cord compression was the pillow that was placed underneath the patient's neck for maintaining the extended position, not the neck extension itself. This finding indicates that care must be taken during neuroradiological examination not to place a pillow under the neck of a patient who has undergone laminectomy. Nuchal compression could lead to cervical cord injury after laminectomy. Laminoplasty benefits the patient by protecting the cervical cord from secondary injury.
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12/338. Nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematoma: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    Acute subdural spinal hematoma occurs rarely; however, when it does occur, it may have disastrous consequences. The authors assessed the outcome of surgery for this lesion in relation to causative factors and diagnostic imaging (computerized tomography [CT], CT myelography), as well as eventual preservation of the subarachnoid space. The authors reviewed 106 cases of nontraumatic acute subdural spinal hematoma (101 published cases and five of their own) in terms of cause, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome. Fifty-one patients (49%) were men and 55 (51%) were women. In 70% of patients the spinal segment involved was in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine. In 57 cases (54%) there was a defect in the hemostatic mechanism. spinal puncture was performed in 50 patients (47%). Late surgical treatment was performed in 59 cases (56%): outcome was good in 25 cases (42%) (in 20 of these patients preoperative neurological evaluation had shown mild deficits or paraparesis, and three patients had presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). The outcome was poor in 34 cases (58%; 23 patients with paraplegia and 11 with SAH). The formation of nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematomas may result from coagulation abnormalities and iatrogenic causes such as spinal puncture. Their effect on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots may be limited to a mere compressive mechanism when the subarachnoid space is preserved and the hematoma is confined between the dura and the arachnoid. It seems likely that the theory regarding the opening of the dural compartment, verified at the cerebral level, is applicable to the spinal level too. Early surgical treatment is always indicated when the patient's neurological status progressively deteriorates. The best results can be obtained in patients who do not experience SAH. In a few selected patients in whom neurological impairment is minimal, conservative treatment is possible.
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13/338. Craniocervical junction synovial cyst associated with atlanto-axial dislocation--case report.

    A 51-year-old female presented with a rare case of synovial cyst at the cruciate ligament of the odontoid process associated with atlanto-axial dislocation, manifesting as a history of headache and numbness in her left extremities for 5 months, and progressive motor weakness of her left leg. neuroimaging studies revealed a small cystic lesion behind the dens, which severely compressed the upper cervical cord, and atlanto-axial dislocation. The cyst was successfully removed via the transcondylar approach. C-1 laminectomy and foramen magnum decompression were also performed. Posterior craniocervical fusion was carried out to stabilize the atlanto-axial dislocation. The cyst contained mucinous material. Histological examination detected synovial cells lining the fibrocartilaginous capsule. Synovial cysts of this region do not have typical symptoms or characteristic radiographic features. Careful preoperative evaluation of the symptoms and a less invasive strategy for removal of the cyst are recommended.
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14/338. osteochondroma with compression of the spinal cord. A report of two cases.

    We report two cases of vertebral osteochondroma. In one patient a solitary cervical lesion presented as entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve and in the other as a thoracic tumour associated with hereditary multiple exostoses producing paraplegia. We highlight the importance of an adequate preoperative evaluation in such patients.
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15/338. Ventral transdural herniation of the thoracic spinal cord: surgical treatment in four cases and review of literature.

    BACKGROUND: A specific cause of progressive brown-sequard syndrome has been identified: a ventral herniation of the thoracic spinal cord through the dural sleeve on one side. METHOD: Four female patients who were affected by a progressive Brown Sequard syndrome related to a transdural spinal cord herniation have been investigated and were submitted to surgery and postoperative evaluation. FINDINGS: The MRI scan showed atrophy and forward displacement of the spinal cord on one side and adhesion of the spinal cord to the dura mater. CT myelography demonstrated the disappearance of the premedullar rim at the level of the herniation and the shadow of the extradural herniation. Surgical treatment consisted in the excision of the arachnoid cyst when there was one, section of the dentate ligament, release of the adhesions, detachment of the spinal cord from the hernial orifice, and lastly suture of the dural tear or placement by a patch. Follow-up examination showed motor improvement with persistent sensory deficit in two cases and stabilisation in two cases. INTERPRETATION: The cause of the dural tear, either traumatic or congenital could not be confirmed in the four cases. Symptoms probably occur when herniation fills the orifice and strangulation happens which explains the late appearance and progressive evolution of this myelopathy. Mobilisation of the herniated spinal cord back into the intradural space can be achieved by surgery and may stop the evolution of the symptoms and signs.
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16/338. Solitary exostosis of the thoracic spine. early diagnosis and treatment.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of vertebral exostosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Few cases of spinal cord compression caused by solitary thoracic exostoses have been reported. METHOD: A solitary exostosis in the midline of the neural arch of the fifth thoracic vertebra, causing compression of the spinal cord documented on both magnetic resonance and computed tomographic examinations, is reported in a 51-year-old woman who had normal findings in a neurologic examination. RESULTS: The exostosis was successfully excised. CONCLUSION: Accurate preoperative diagnosis of vertebral exostoses is possible using magnetic resonance and computed tomography. Early excision avoids the development of a permanent neurologic deficit.
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17/338. Extraosseous extension of vertebral hemangioma, a rare cause of spinal cord compression.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To illustrate a rare cause of thoracic spinal cord compression, its diagnosis, and its management. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Asymptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are common, but extraosseous extension causing spinal cord compression with neurologic symptoms is rare, and few cases appear in the English-language literature. METHOD: A previously asymptomatic 63-year-old man sought medical attention for acute back pain and thoracic myelopathy of 6 week's duration. magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a mass in the T10 vertebral body with paravertebral and intracanalicular extension contributing to cord compression. decompression and reconstructive surgery were performed and radiotherapy administered after surgery. Preoperative angiography was not performed because of the patient's rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration and the consideration that the differential diagnosis of vertebral hemangioma was less likely. RESULTS: The diagnosis of benign capillary hemangioma was made histologically. Neurologic recovery was complete except for minor residual sensory changes in the legs. At follow-up 10 months after surgery the patient had returned to his usual active life and motor mower repairing business. CONCLUSION: Extraosseous extension of vertebral hemangiomas is a rare cause of thoracic spinal cord compression. As such, the available data are derived from reports based on series involving only a small number of cases, rather than on results of randomized controlled trials. Those causing progressive neurologic symptoms should be surgically decompressed, with the specific procedure determined by the extent and site of the lesion. Preoperative angiography is recommended, but embolization is not always necessary or even possible. Postoperative radiotherapy is recommended when tumor removal is subtotal.
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18/338. Postoperative pulmonary edema after cervical spine surgery--a case report.

    Injury of the cervical spine may cause serious complications and neurological sequelae. Recently, a patient with C1-2 spinal cord compression developed pulmonary edema postoperatively associated with unstable hemodynamics, which might result from overzealous fluid administration in order to correct neurogenic shock during anesthesia. Therefore, early recognition and timely use of vasoconstrictors, together with judicious fluid replacement are important in the anesthetic management of patients with cervical spine injury undergoing surgery. In addition, the placement of pulmonary artery catheter is crucial for assessing the cardiac function and fluid status.
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19/338. calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease causing thoracic cord compression: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease is being increasingly recognized. Spinal involvement in CPPD deposition disease is rare. When involved, the cervical and lumbar regions are commonly affected. We report a rare case of CPPD deposition disease that caused thoracic cord compression. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old woman presented with clinical features suggestive of thoracic cord compression. Radiographic findings were consistent with calcification of the ligamenta flava in the lower thoracic levels causing cord compression. Calcification of the ligamentum flavum is commonly attributed to CPPD deposition disease. Evaluation for conditions that might be associated with CPPD deposition disease proved to be negative. INTERVENTION: laminectomy with removal of the calcified ligamenta flava was performed. Histopathological examination of the excised ligaments revealed evidence of CPPD crystals. Postoperatively, the patient's spasticity decreased and sensations improved, with no significant improvement in motor power. CONCLUSION: Calcification of the ligamenta flava due to CPPD deposition disease is a rare cause of thoracic cord compression. CPPD deposition disease should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of thoracic cord compression.
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20/338. A case report of caudal regression syndrome associated with an intraspinal arachnoid cyst.

    We report here a rare case of caudal regression syndrome associated with an intraspinal arachnoid cyst. The patient was a 6-month-old baby girl with multicomplex congenital abnormalities: sacrococcygeal dysgenesis and ventral curvature, large terminal cyst (myelocystocele), spinal arachnoid cyst, cerebellar hypertrophy (suspected), high imperforate anus, partial dysgenesis of the large intestine, omphalocele, atresia of the vagina, bilateral incomplete ureter duplication, incomplete pseudoduplicated bladder and bilateral talipes equinovarus. We performed plastic repair of the myelocystocele and perineal lesion for caudal regression syndrome and partial removal of the cyst wall for the intraspinal arachnoid cyst. She has been well for 3 years postoperatively, and her mental development is normal.
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