Cases reported "Spinal Cord Compression"

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1/1293. Spinal arachnoid cyst with weakness in the limbs and abdominal pain.

    A 7-year-old male admitted with neck rigidity, severe pain in the abdomen, and progressive weakness in the lower limbs was diagnosed as having a spinal intramedullary arachnoid cyst. There was a dramatic and immediate recovery after fenestration of the cyst.
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2/1293. Can intramedullary signal change on magnetic resonance imaging predict surgical outcome in cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study evaluating magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomographic myelography, and clinical parameters in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging can predict the surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: No previous studies have established whether areas of high signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images can be a predictor of surgical outcomes. methods: Fifty patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were examined by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic myelography before surgery and by delayed computed tomographic myelography after surgery. The correlation between the recovery rate and the clinical and imaging parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: The best prognostic factor was the transverse area of the spinal cord at maximum compression (correlation coefficient, R = 0.58). The presence of high signal intensity areas on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images correlated poorly with the recovery rate (R = -0.29). However, patients with multisegmental areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images tended to have poor surgical results associated with muscle atrophy in the upper extremities. Postoperative delayed computed tomographic myelography showed that multisegmental areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images probably represent cavitation in the central spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS: patients with multisegmental areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images tended to have poorer surgical results. However, the transverse area of the spinal cord at the level of maximum compression was a better prognostic indicator.
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3/1293. spinal cord compression caused by unusual location and extension of ossified ligamenta flava in a Caucasian male. A case report and literature review.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of a spinal cord compression caused by ossification of the ligamenta flava is presented together with a review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: To present the diagnosis of ossification of the ligamenta flava in a Caucasian man with a proximal thoracic myelopathy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This case shows that the upper parts of the thoracic spine can be involved in ossification of the ligamenta flava, which never before has been reported in Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, it is advised that computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging be combined to provide an accurate diagnosis and proper preoperative evaluation of the bony changes, spinal cord, and compression of the spinal cord. methods: A patient with a thoracic spinal cord compression caused by ossification of the ligamenta flava was treated surgically and made a good clinical recovery. Imaging studies, surgical findings, and results of histopathologic investigations were analyzed to substantiate the diagnosis. RESULTS: The results of the surgical findings seemed to be in contrast with those of the imaging studies. This contrast was occasioned by the uncommon perioperative finding of a fusion of the completely ossified upper and lower parts of the involved adjacent ligamenta flava. Ossification of the ligamenta flava was diagnosed by histopathologic examination, which revealed endochondral ossification and lamellar bone formation without fragments of ligamenta flava. CONCLUSION: Although rarely reported in whites, ossification of the ligamenta flava should be considered in all patients presenting with a spinal cord compression, even at high thoracic levels. The prognosis after decompressive surgery can be good, especially if intramedullary hyperintensities are absent on preoperatively performed T2-weighted magnetic resonance images.
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4/1293. Trivial injuries, associated congenital anomaly and medicolegal interpretation of death.

    Congenital hypoplasia of the odontoid process is a relatively rare phenomenon. A case is presented of a 12-year-old girl who was admitted to hospital with a history of having sustained trivial external injuries when falling after an alleged push. Later, she developed signs of compression of the spinal cord in the cervical region, resulting in quadriplegia and muscle wasting. A laminectomy was performed to relieve the symptoms but the child died 2 1/2 months later. autopsy revealed a congenital anomaly of the atlas and axis vertebrae in the form of hypoplasia of the dens. The case being associated with a criminal assault, the post-mortem analysis and autopsy were significant in resolving medicolegal issues pertaining to the assailant, the operating surgeon and the law-enforcement agencies.
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5/1293. Spontaneous regression of periodontoid pannus mass in psoriatic atlantoaxial subluxation. Case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of a 41-year-old man with psoriasis who had cervical myelopathy caused by atlantoaxial subluxation and periodontoid pannus mass. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible mechanism underlying the periodontoid pannus formation and the optimal treatment for such cases. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Atlantoaxial subluxation causing spinal cord compression at the craniocervical junction may develop in patients with rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis. Periodontoid pannus formation plays an important role in compromising the anteroposterior diameter of the spinal canal and in causing neurologic deficits. Transoral transpharyngeal excision of the pannus is sometimes thought necessary for anterior decompression of the spinal cord. Spontaneous resolution of the periodontoid pannus after posterior atlantoaxial fusion and fixation has been documented in rheumatoid arthritis, but not in psoriatic arthritis. methods: The patient underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion and Halifax fixation. RESULTS: The patient experienced clinical improvement. Regression of the periodontoid pannus mass was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Posterior fusion and instrumentation resulted in spontaneous regression of the pannus mass and symptomatic relief. This report provides evidence that atlantoaxial instability may be the sine qua non for the formation of periodontoid pannus, and that amelioration of such instability leads to spontaneous resolution of the pannus mass.
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6/1293. Cranial nerve palsy as a complication of operative traction.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: This report documents one case of diplopia from abducens (sixth cranial) nerve palsy after spinal surgery using a Jackson table and cranial traction. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cranial nerve deficits have frequently been described in the orthopedic literature after trauma, halo pelvic traction, and halo skeletal fixation. The theorized mechanism of injury to the abducens nerve involves stretch or traction force, which causes localized ischemia or a change in nerve position. An extensive literature search failed to show this type of injury using Gardner-Wells tongs in conjunction with the Jackson table. methods: This is a case report that included a chart review, examination of the patient, and a literature search. RESULTS: The patient had complete spontaneous resolution of abducens nerve dysfunction within 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: It is important for the surgeon to be aware of this potential complication and to inform patients who have diplopia that develops from abducens nerve palsy that most of these cranial nerve deficits spontaneously improve.
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7/1293. High cervical disc lesions in elderly patients--presentation and surgical approach.

    The incidence of high cervical disc lesions is extremely rare, and the mechanism of their development is unclear. We report these three cases, and discuss the possible mechanisms. We also describe surgical strategies for these lesions. The first and second cases were an 82-year-old male and an 84-year-old male with retro-odontoid disc hernia. The third was an 83-year-old female with a herniated disc at C2/C3. To investigate Aetiological mechanisms of these lesions, we examined the findings on cervical images in extension and flexion, and compared the results in a younger than 80-year-old group and an older than 80-year-old group. The patients underwent surgery via a posterolateral intradural approach. Wide laminectomy and incision of the dentate ligaments enabled access to the ventral space of the upper cervical spinal canal and sufficient decompression. All patients became ambulatory postoperatively without special fixation of the cervical spine. In the younger group, the level mostly loaded during cervical movement was C5/6, however, the levels in the older group were C2/3 and C3/4. In elderly patients, less mobilization of the middle and/or lower cervical spine due to spondylotic change causes overloading at higher levels resulting in high cervical disc lesions. Retro-odontoid disc lesions can be caused by a herniated disc at C2/C3, which migrates upward. Regarding surgical strategy, the posterolateral intradural approach is less invasive and more advantageous for these lesions.
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8/1293. A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases.

    Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.
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9/1293. Treatment of cervical compressive myelopathy with a new dorsolateral decompressive procedure.

    OBJECT: A new dorsolateral decompressive procedure involving a unilateral approach has been devised for the treatment of cervical compressive myelopathy. In this operation, the posterior spinal elements of the contralateral side are not disturbed, and thus, postoperative deformity of the cervical spine can be avoided. Following decompressive surgery via the unilateral approach, the cervical spine was kept more stable compared with the results obtained after wide laminectomy or other expansive laminoplasty procedures. methods: Twenty-six patients underwent dorsolateral decompressive surgery, and the patients' clinical and radiological results were examined during the follow-up period to evaluate neurological function and postoperative deformities of the cervical spine. The underlying conditions for myelopathy were cervical spondylosis (19 patients), ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (three patients), and ossification of yellow ligament (four patients). The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 110 months (average 35.5 months). Functional recovery, which was rated by using the Japanese Orthopaedic association scoring system, was an average of 56% in all patients (100% being equal to full recovery). The recovery rate was compatible with those attained after other expansive laminoplasty procedures. Radiographically, progression to swan-neck or kyphotic deformity was not observed in any patient. No postoperative spinal instability was noted. Based on computerized tomography myelograph evaluation, the average transectional area of the dural tube at the C4-5 level was expanded from 122 mm2 to 169 mm2, and the transectional area of the spinal cord at the C4-5 level was expanded from 39.6 mm2 to 52.9 mm2 after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that this operative procedure could be used as a new option for the treatment of cervical compressive myelopathy.
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10/1293. Surgical approach to ossification of the thoracic yellow ligament.

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) at the lower thoracic level is uncommon. Although wide laminectomy has, until now, been the primary treatment for this disease, we propose a less invasive technique based on a new method of three-dimensional computed tomography (CT). methods: The clinical features and radiologic imaging findings of 37 patients with OYL (mean age, 54 years) were analyzed. The surgical approach was selected based on the position of the depicted OYL on 3D CT scan in each patient. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was 3:1. Involvement of the upper thoracic region was seen 11 times; of the middle region 8 times, and of the lower region 40 times (several patients had involvement in more than one region). About half of the patients complained of gait disturbance on admission caused by the markedly enlarged OYL. No postoperative complications were found. Neurologic deterioration was observed in only one patient. CONCLUSIONS: OYL should be treated as early as possible, using the least invasive technique available. By using 3D CT, we were able to perform limited surgery consisting of foraminotomy or extended partial laminectomy at the affected level after confirming the anatomic location of the OYL. In laterally extended OYL, it is necessary to decompress the radicular artery in order to prevent ischemic damage to the spinal cord.
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