Cases reported "Spinal Cord Compression"

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1/142. High cervical disc lesions in elderly patients--presentation and surgical approach.

    The incidence of high cervical disc lesions is extremely rare, and the mechanism of their development is unclear. We report these three cases, and discuss the possible mechanisms. We also describe surgical strategies for these lesions. The first and second cases were an 82-year-old male and an 84-year-old male with retro-odontoid disc hernia. The third was an 83-year-old female with a herniated disc at C2/C3. To investigate Aetiological mechanisms of these lesions, we examined the findings on cervical images in extension and flexion, and compared the results in a younger than 80-year-old group and an older than 80-year-old group. The patients underwent surgery via a posterolateral intradural approach. Wide laminectomy and incision of the dentate ligaments enabled access to the ventral space of the upper cervical spinal canal and sufficient decompression. All patients became ambulatory postoperatively without special fixation of the cervical spine. In the younger group, the level mostly loaded during cervical movement was C5/6, however, the levels in the older group were C2/3 and C3/4. In elderly patients, less mobilization of the middle and/or lower cervical spine due to spondylotic change causes overloading at higher levels resulting in high cervical disc lesions. Retro-odontoid disc lesions can be caused by a herniated disc at C2/C3, which migrates upward. Regarding surgical strategy, the posterolateral intradural approach is less invasive and more advantageous for these lesions.
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2/142. Brucellar spinal epidural abscess.

    Spinal epidural abscesses account for approximately one of every 10, 000 admissions to tertiary hospitals. The midthoracic vertebrae are the most frequently affected, whilst the cervical spine is involved in fewer patients. staphylococcus aureus is identified as the cause in most cases of epidural abscess; other bacteria responsible include gram-negative bacteria, streptococcus species and brucella species. We report the case of a patient with cervical spondylodiscitis at level C4-C5 and an epidural abscess which was compressing the spinal cord and the retropharyngeal space. The previous symptoms of brucellosis were atypical. We discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the case.
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3/142. A case of renal pseudotumor associated with chronic pachymeningitis.

    BACKGROUND: A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a left renal mass. methods/RESULTS: Radiologic studies demonstrated a solitary space-occupying lesion in the left kidney and a malignant tumor was suspected. Left radical nephrectomy was then performed. Pathological examination revealed a sclerotic fibrous lesion with a rather distinct margin and no evidence of malignancy. These pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of a renal pseudotumor. CONCLUSIONS: This patient had a history of chronic pachymeningitis that formed a thoracic epidural focus causing spinal cord compression and the histologic appearance of this focus was similar to the renal lesion. It was concluded that this was a rare case of a renal pseudotumor associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis.
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4/142. Cervical cord compression caused by a pillow in a postlaminectomy patient undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    A 66-year-old man, who had undergone osteoplastic laminectomy for posttraumatic cervical myelopathy, underwent a second operation in which the replaced laminae were removed because of postoperative deep wound infection. Follow-up dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with flexion and extension views of the neck 1 year postsurgery demonstrated that the cervical cord was markedly compressed from behind in the extended position, although a wide subarachnoid space was observed in this region when the neck was in the flexed position. The cause of cord compression was the pillow that was placed underneath the patient's neck for maintaining the extended position, not the neck extension itself. This finding indicates that care must be taken during neuroradiological examination not to place a pillow under the neck of a patient who has undergone laminectomy. Nuchal compression could lead to cervical cord injury after laminectomy. Laminoplasty benefits the patient by protecting the cervical cord from secondary injury.
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5/142. Nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematoma: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    Acute subdural spinal hematoma occurs rarely; however, when it does occur, it may have disastrous consequences. The authors assessed the outcome of surgery for this lesion in relation to causative factors and diagnostic imaging (computerized tomography [CT], CT myelography), as well as eventual preservation of the subarachnoid space. The authors reviewed 106 cases of nontraumatic acute subdural spinal hematoma (101 published cases and five of their own) in terms of cause, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome. Fifty-one patients (49%) were men and 55 (51%) were women. In 70% of patients the spinal segment involved was in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine. In 57 cases (54%) there was a defect in the hemostatic mechanism. spinal puncture was performed in 50 patients (47%). Late surgical treatment was performed in 59 cases (56%): outcome was good in 25 cases (42%) (in 20 of these patients preoperative neurological evaluation had shown mild deficits or paraparesis, and three patients had presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). The outcome was poor in 34 cases (58%; 23 patients with paraplegia and 11 with SAH). The formation of nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematomas may result from coagulation abnormalities and iatrogenic causes such as spinal puncture. Their effect on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots may be limited to a mere compressive mechanism when the subarachnoid space is preserved and the hematoma is confined between the dura and the arachnoid. It seems likely that the theory regarding the opening of the dural compartment, verified at the cerebral level, is applicable to the spinal level too. Early surgical treatment is always indicated when the patient's neurological status progressively deteriorates. The best results can be obtained in patients who do not experience SAH. In a few selected patients in whom neurological impairment is minimal, conservative treatment is possible.
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6/142. Ventral transdural herniation of the thoracic spinal cord: surgical treatment in four cases and review of literature.

    BACKGROUND: A specific cause of progressive brown-sequard syndrome has been identified: a ventral herniation of the thoracic spinal cord through the dural sleeve on one side. METHOD: Four female patients who were affected by a progressive Brown Sequard syndrome related to a transdural spinal cord herniation have been investigated and were submitted to surgery and postoperative evaluation. FINDINGS: The MRI scan showed atrophy and forward displacement of the spinal cord on one side and adhesion of the spinal cord to the dura mater. CT myelography demonstrated the disappearance of the premedullar rim at the level of the herniation and the shadow of the extradural herniation. Surgical treatment consisted in the excision of the arachnoid cyst when there was one, section of the dentate ligament, release of the adhesions, detachment of the spinal cord from the hernial orifice, and lastly suture of the dural tear or placement by a patch. Follow-up examination showed motor improvement with persistent sensory deficit in two cases and stabilisation in two cases. INTERPRETATION: The cause of the dural tear, either traumatic or congenital could not be confirmed in the four cases. Symptoms probably occur when herniation fills the orifice and strangulation happens which explains the late appearance and progressive evolution of this myelopathy. Mobilisation of the herniated spinal cord back into the intradural space can be achieved by surgery and may stop the evolution of the symptoms and signs.
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7/142. achondroplasia and cervicomedullary compression: prospective evaluation and surgical treatment.

    The association between sudden death and cervicomedullary compression in infants with achondroplasia has been well described. Prospective clinical and imaging evaluations have been recommended to identify those infants with achondroplasia who are at risk of dying suddenly from respiratory arrest secondary to unrecognized cervicomedullary compression. Since 1988, we have prospectively evaluated 11 infants (average age 13 weeks) with achondroplasia who were asymptomatic for cervicomedullary compression on initial clinical evaluation. Craniocervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included narrowing of the foramen magnum, effacement of the subarachnoid spaces at the cervicomedullary junction, abnormal intrinsic cord signal intensity and mild to moderate ventriculomegaly. Two patients with severe cord compression underwent immediate decompression. Two patients developed opisthotonic posturing within 3 months of evaluation and underwent foramen magnum decompression, including suboccipital craniectomy and atlantal laminectomy. Surgery in all cases revealed forward extension of the squamous portion of the occipital bone, thickened posterior rim of the foramen magnum and a dense fibrotic epidural band. There were no complications from surgery. Seven patients did not require surgery and were followed closely. All 11 patients remain asymptomatic at follow-up (mean 4.6 years; range 16 months to 7.3 years), and no patient has required a diversionary shunt procedure. The results of this prospective study confirm that early clinical and MRI evaluations are necessary to determine whether infants with achondroplasia have cervicomedullary compression. With early recognition, an immediate decompression can be performed safely to avoid serious complications associated with cervicomedullary compression, including sudden death. copyright copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel
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8/142. Surgical decompression and radiation therapy in epidural metastasis from cervical cancer.

    spinal cord compression by epidural metastasis is considered an exceptional complication in patients with cervical carcinoma. We report three patients treated for a cervical carcinoma who developed epidural metastasis with spinal cord compression at 9, 25 and 48 months after primary treatment of the uterine malignancy. All patients had poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas with lymphovascular space invasion, and two had lymph node metastasis. All patients underwent emergency decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy and a partial recovery of the neurological function was achieved. In two patients the spinal cord was the only site of recurrent disease, whereas the other had lung and brain metastasis at the time of epidural involvement diagnosis. All three patients, however, died of disseminated disease. Surgical decompression followed by radiation therapy may result in a complete preservation of the neurologic functions in patients with spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Considering the propensity for disseminated disease, long term survival might be achieved only with the use of effective chemotherapy.
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9/142. Delayed paraplegia caused by the gradual collapse of an infected vertebra.

    A case of delayed paraplegia caused by a gradual and progressive collapse of a vertebra after healing of pyogenic spondylitis is reported. A 73-year-old man was treated for a hematogenously seeded pyogenic spondylitis of the first lumbar vertebra. magnetic resonance imaging showed a high signal intensity of the involved vertebra and adjacent discs and a paravertebral abscess without disc space narrowing. Eight months after healing of the infection, the patient had muscle weakness and paresthesia of the lower extremities, which gradually increased. The plane radiographs revealed a kyphotic deformity of 36 degrees with a collapse of the first lumbar vertebra.
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10/142. Iatrogenic paraplegia caused by surgicel used for hemostasis during a thoracotomy: report of a case.

    A 46-year-old Japanese woman underwent a right lower lobectomy through a posterolateral incision made in the fifth intercostal space under general and epidural anesthesia on January 23, 1995. During the procedure, oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel) was used to prevent postoperative rebleeding from the dorsal branch of the fifth intercostal artery. The following day it became evident that complete paraplegia had developed below the Th5 level, the cause of which was revealed by an emergency laminectomy, performed within 20 h after the thoracotomy, to be the Surgical treatment. By 50 days after the operation the patient had begun to show improvement, and was able to move her lower extremities against gravity. Her condition is continuing to improve.
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