Cases reported "Spinal Cord Diseases"

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11/1063. A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases.

    Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.
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12/1063. Pontine cryptococcoma in a nonimmunocompromised individual: MRI characteristics.

    The case of a pontine cryptococcoma in a nonimmunocompromised, previously healthy 16-year-old boy is presented. The patient had slowly progressive brainstem signs with right cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII palsies, and contralateral corticospinal and spinothalamic deficits. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed, within the right pons, a 1-cm diameter round mass lesion, hypointense on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and with rim enhancement after infusion of gadopentetate dimeglumine. This is the only report of the MRI findings in an isolated pontine cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient. Early recognition of this specific MRI pattern is essential, because complete recovery can be achieved with prompt antifungal treatment.
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13/1063. Intramedullary spinal cord abscess associated with cervical spondylodiskitis and epidural abscess.

    A 50-year-old man presented a cervical vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess due to staphylococcus aureus. There were significant changes in the cervical region, as revealed by CT scan and MRI, leading to the diagnosis of associated intramedullary abscess of the spinal cord, which was confirmed by anatomopathological study.
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14/1063. Idiopathic spinal cord herniation: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is a rare condition, reported in only 25 patients thus far, in which the thoracic cord is prolapsed through an anterior dural defect. It typically presents in middle age as either brown-sequard syndrome or spastic paraparesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old woman initially presented at the age of 41 years with brown-sequard syndrome at the T8 disc space level on the left side. Investigations, including primitive magnetic resonance imaging, were deemed negative at that time. After a stepwise deterioration over 14 years, she presented again with spastic paraparesis and double incontinence, in addition to her previous spinothalamic dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging at this stage suggested either ISCH or a dorsal arachnoid cyst. INTERVENTION: Through a T7-T8 laminectomy, a left-of-midline ISCH was identified and easily reduced by gentle cord traction. No dorsal arachnoid cyst was identified. The anterior dural defect was repaired with a XenoDerm patch (LifeCell Corp., Woodlands, TX). After surgery, there was improved motor and sphincter function. However, there was continued sensory disturbance. CONCLUSION: ISCH is rare cause of thoracic cord dysfunction. Despite prolonged diagnostic delay, significant clinical improvement may be obtained with ISCH reduction and anterior dural repair.
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15/1063. Myoclonic disorders of spinal origin.

    Data in the literature on spinal myoclonic disorders are still scanty; little has been done to ensure an adequate classification; little is known about the pathophysiology of these disorders. Three patients with spinal myoclonic jerks are described, with detailed reference to electromyographic findings. On the basis of the case reports so far available, a classification into five subgroups is suggested of spinal myoclonic jerks: 1) after cord injuries; 2) associated with intramedullary cord tumours; 3) associated with intramedullary or extramedullary cysts; 4) associated with radiculomyelitis or myelopathy; 5) associated with affections of the alpha motoneurons. A number of hypotheses on the pathogenesis of this disorder are briefly discussed: peripheral or intraspinal sprouting, degeneration of alpha motoneurons or interneurons, reduction of the dendritic tree size, and involvement of the gamma system.
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16/1063. Neurologic complications of gas myelography by the lumbar route.

    Gas myelography is not a new technique, but its acceptance in neuroradiologic diagnosis has been relatively recent. Previously reported series have emphasized the benign nature of this technique and the lack of significant accompanying complications. From a series of 174 gas myelograms performed during a four-year period, two reports are presented wherein transient exacerbation of neurologic deficit followed exchange of cerebrospinal fluid and gas under pressure by the lumbar route. One patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy experienced an increase in paresis, while another was found to have marked fasciculations. Speculation regarding possible mechanisms involved with these complications is presented. It is suggested that exchange of cerebrospinal fluid and gas under pressure via the lumbar route be used with caution in those patients with compromised cervical spinal cords.
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17/1063. MRI of the spinal cord in myelopathy complicating vitamin B12 deficiency: two additional cases and a review of the literature.

    Focal spinal cord lesions have been present in all previously reported cases of MRI appearances in myelopathy complicating vitamin B12 deficiency. We describe two further cases showing mild atrophy only and review the salient features of the previous 11 publications. MRI findings reflect quite closely the known pathological changes in this condition.
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18/1063. Neurological deficit following spinal anaesthesia: MRI and CT evidence of spinal cord gas embolism.

    A 62-year-old diabetic woman developed permanent neurological deficits in the legs following spinal anaesthesia. MRI showed oedema in the spinal cord and a small intramedullary focus of signal void at the T10 level, with negative density at CT. Intramedullary gas bubbles have not been reported previously among the possible neurological complications of spinal anaesthesia; a combined ischaemic/embolic mechanism is hypothesised.
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19/1063. Idiopathic localized hydromyelia: dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord of probable congenital origin.

    Three adult patients are reported with asymptomatic localized widening of the central canal of the spinal cord. These patients were followed for a period of 24 years by imaging and/or clinical history and physical examination without evidence of signs or symptoms related to the spinal cord. This condition probably represents persistence into adult life of a fetal configuration of the central canal of the spinal cord. This process may be termed "idiopathic localized hydromyelia" to distinguish it from syringomyelia secondary to such causes as Chiari malformation, trauma, infection, or neoplasm.
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20/1063. Malignant glial tumor arising from the site of a previous hamartoma/ganglioglioma: coincidence or malignant transformation?

    Gangliogliomas are generally considered benign tumors. Although more commonly found in the brain, spinal cord ganglioglioma is a well established, albeit infrequent, entity. We describe a 2-decade clinical course of a patient initially diagnosed with a thoracolumbar 'glial-neuronal hamartoma' at age 4. Seventeen years after his first operation, local recurrence was noted. Despite subsequent multiple gross total resections and adjuvant therapy, histologic features became increasingly ominous and ultimately proved fatal. This is an unusual report and histologic presentation of a resected spinal cord ganglioglioma recurring as an anaplastic ependymoma/astrocytoma and subsequently a glioblastoma. It is quite likely that the originally resected ganglioglioma was actually part of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor which had undergone extensive maturation.
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