Cases reported "Spinal Cord Diseases"

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21/1063. spinal cord schistosomiasis. A report of 2 cases and review emphasizing clinical aspects.

    Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) is a severe and little known form of presentation of schistosomiasis mansoni and hematobic schistosomiasis. The literature concerning the entity is scarce, and most publications are limited to isolated case reports. Thus, to consolidate and analyze the knowledge currently available about the disease, I reviewed 231 cases, with emphasis on clinical aspects. Although variations occur, in most cases the clinical picture of SMR is highly suggestive in individuals with epidemiologic antecedents of the infection. Thus, a patient with SMR is usually a young male with no other manifestations of schistosomal infection who presents with lumbar pain, often of a radicular nature, soon followed by weakness and sensory loss of rapid progression in the lower limbs associated with autonomic dysfunction, particularly bladder dysfunction. The most suggestive elements of the entity, and therefore of higher diagnostic value, are the low localization of the spinal cord lesion, the acute or subacute onset of the disease, and the association of manifestations due to medullary and radicular involvement. SMR is commonly classified into clinical or anatomoclinical forms. However, I observed no consensus in this classification even in terms of the terminology used. The analysis performed in this review permitted the introduction of a new concept not yet reported in the literature regarding the possibility that the disease consists of a continuous spectrum, with asymptomatic egg laying in the spinal cord at 1 end of the spectrum and devastating forms at the other end, with most cases occupying an intermediate position and with the various types of damage overlapping and associated to different degrees. This concept applies not only to different patients but also to the same patient at different stages of the disease. Chemical and cytomorphologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) almost always revealed mildly or moderately increased total protein concentration and predominantly lymphocytic pleocytosis. eosinophils, the least nonspecific finding, were detected in the CSF of less than half (40.8%) the patients. myelography and computed tomography-myelography were altered in 63.3% of cases, but this proportion may be an overestimate. The most frequent changes were images of a filling defect due to expansion of the spinal cord and were almost always demonstrated by the 2 imaging modalities. Although still few in number, early reports suggest that magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive; however, the changes are also nonspecific, such as those revealed by myelography and computed tomography-myelography. Parasite eggs were demonstrated frequently in a biologic specimen (88.3%), but difficulty in detection was not uncommon. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was detected in 64.5% of patients and represented a nonspecific finding. The detection of anti-schistosoma antibodies in the serum or CSF was also frequent (94.9% and 84.8%, respectively). The presence of anti-schistosoma antibodies in serum is of limited value for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in general, especially among individuals living in endemic areas; however, their quantification in the CSF has proved to be promising for diagnosis in the few studies conducted for this purpose. The large number of variables concerning treatment (such as drugs used and duration of disease at the beginning of treatment), together with the relative lack of information about the natural history of the disease, limit the analysis of aspects related to treatment and prognosis. Nevertheless, it was possible to conclude that corticosteroids and antischistosomotic drugs have a favorable effect on disease outcome and should be administered as early as possible. In addition to early treatment, factors linked to the disease itself affect prognosis. The new cases of SMR reported here are typical and illustrate the data discussed in this literature survey.
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22/1063. Dermal sinus and intramedullary spinal cord abscess. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Intramedullary abscesses of the spinal cord are uncommon. Most of them occur in association with heart, pulmonary or urogenital infections. We report two cases of intramedullary spinal cord abscesses secondary to congenital dermal sinus. Only 14 cases of such an association have previously been reported. In our cases, dermal sinus was associated with an epidermoid tumour. The clinical presentation, pathogenesis, magnetic resonance imaging findings, surgical management and outcome are discussed.
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23/1063. Anterior sacral meningocele completely occupied by an epidermoid tumor.

    A 2-year-old girl presented with an anterior sacral meningocele completely occupied by an epidermoid tumor. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging had shown the meningocele with contents of the same intensity as cerebrospinal fluid. Surgery via a posterior sacral approach disclosed the tumor beneath an unexpected membrane inside the meningocele. Additionally, the presence of pus inside epidermoid tumor suggested that possible episodes of asymptomatic meningitis or other infection might have occurred before treatment, these being the major complication in anterior sacral meningocele. Therefore, we recommend that surgical treatment should be performed at the earliest possible stage in childhood, once the diagnosis is established, and dural plasty carried out to prevent infectious complications.
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24/1063. spinal cord sarcoidosis presenting as an intramedullary mass: a case report.

    A case of spinal cord sarcoidosis mimicking an intramedullary tumor is reported because of its rarity and difficulty in diagnosis before surgery. A 66-year-old woman began to suffer from chronic thoracic myelopathy in August, 1996. She had a history of intrathoracic sarcoidosis with left hilar adenopathy in 1991, which disappeared completely after steroid therapy for one month. magnetic resonance imaging of the T-spine performed on 4 June, 1997, showed normal appearance in T1-weighted and T2-weighted images but abnormal enhancement at the T10-11 level. Open biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomatous inflammation and perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. Following biopsy, methylprednisolone 750 mg was given daily for three days followed by prednisolone 60 mg per day. The patient was discharged on 10 July, 1997, in a stable condition. She died on 22 July, 1997, at a local hospital due to urinary tract infection with sepsis.
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25/1063. Idiopathic spinal cord herniation: value of MR phase-contrast imaging.

    We report two patients with an idiopathic transdural spinal cord herniation at the thoracic level. Phase-contrast MR imaging was helpful in showing an absence of CSF flow ventral to the herniated cord and a normal CSF flow pattern dorsal to the cord, which excluded a compressive posterior arachnoid cyst.
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26/1063. spinal cord granulomatous vasculitis: an unusual clinical presentation of sarcoidosis.

    A 52-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated manifestations of myelopathy. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging showed a focus of increased signal intensity at the posterolateral left half of C5 and C6. biopsy of spinal cord revealed the presence of active vasculitis associated with noncaseating granulomas. The patient responded to the combination of methotrexate (MTX) and corticosteroid treatment. Low-dose MTX was an effective, steroid-sparing regimen. This is a rare condition of isolated spinal cord involvement associated with sarcoid vasculitis.
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27/1063. Intradural-extramedullary spinal cysticercosis: MR imaging findings.

    A rare case with intradural-extramedullary cysticercosis is presented here. MR imaging with and without gd-DTPA were performed. There were multiple cysts in the basal cistern, cisterna magna, and cervical subarachnoid space which were isointense with cerebrospinal fluid both on T2- and T1-weighted images. Swelling and increased signal intensity in the cord parenchyma were detected on T2-weighted images. gadolinium enhanced studies showed rim-shaped enhancement in the cysts and irregular, diffuse enhancement in the meninges.
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28/1063. Optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis and anti-thyroid autoantibodies.

    The optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis (OSMS), characterized by recurrent involvement of optic nerve and spinal cord with rare brain magnetic resonance imaging lesions, is relatively common among Asians. While individual cases of OSMS with anti-thyroid autoantibodies (ATABs) have been reported, the frequency of ATAbs in OSMS and classical multiple sclerosis has not been studied. We studied serum ATAbs and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 46 Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis: 14 with OSMS, and 32 with non-OSMS. Six patients were positive for ATAbs: five women with OSMS and one man with non-OSMS. The frequency of ATAbs in OSMS (5/14) was significantly higher than that in non-OSMS (1/32; P = 0.007), but the frequency of ANA did not differ between OSMS (3/14) and non-OSMS (6/32; P = 0.99). There may be a pathogenetic link between anti-thyroid autoimmunity and a subgroup of OSMS in Japanese.
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29/1063. Analgesic effect of oral ketamine in chronic neuropathic pain of spinal origin: a case report.

    ketamine is an injectable anesthetic induction agent that has been reported to have analgesic activity in pain from a variety of mechanisms, but predominantly in neuralgic and dysesthetic neuropathic pain. In this case report we illustrate the effectiveness of ketamine in a patient with neuropathic pain resulting from cauda equina trauma. Among the issues addressed are the role of pretreatment with haloperidol to prevent ketamine-induced psychomimetic effects, the potential for fewer side effects and a need for lower doses when ketamine is administered orally, and the need for further study regarding appropriate monitoring parameters during the titration phase. Oral ketamine can be effective in treatment refractory chronic neuropathic pain of spinal origin.
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30/1063. Midline spinal cord hamartomas: MR imaging features of two patients.

    Congenital midline spinal hamartomas are relatively rare. patients harboring this anomaly are generally asymptomatic, but present with an overlying skin anomaly. MR imaging depicts a mass that is isointense with the spinal cord on all sequences, and may show a dermal sinus tract that tethers the cord at the level of the lesion. We report the MR features of congenital midline spinal hamartoma in two children.
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