Cases reported "Spinal Cord Injuries"

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1/126. Pseudo Chiari type I malformation secondary to cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage may occur spontaneously, iatrogenically or from spinal trauma. Postural headache is the cardinal symptom; dizziness, diminished hearing, nausea and vomiting are additional symptoms. In neurological examinations cranial nerve palsies may be found. Due to low CSF pressure neuroimaging studies may reveal dural enhancement and vertical displacement of the brain. We describe a patient with the history of an uncomplicated lumbar discectomy at the level L4-5 and the typical clinical symptoms of intracranial hypotension. MRI of the craniocervical junction showed typical features of a Chiari type-I malformation. After neurosurgical ligation of a CSF leak at L4-5 caused by lumbar disc surgery, the patient was free of orthostatic headache. A repeated MRI showed a striking reduction of the previous downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and pons.
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2/126. Prevention of human diaphragm atrophy with short periods of electrical stimulation.

    We determined whether prolonged complete inactivation of the human diaphragm results in atrophy and whether this could be prevented by brief periods of electrical phrenic nerve stimulation. We studied a subject with high spinal cord injury who required removal of his left phrenic nerve pacemaker (PNP) and the reinstitution of positive-pressure ventilation for 8 mo. During this time, the right phrenic nerve was stimulated 30 min per day. Thickness of each diaphragm (tdi) was determined by ultrasonography. Maximal tidal volume (VT) was measured during stimulation of each diaphragm separately. After left PNP reimplantation, VT and tdi were measured just before the resumption of electrical stimulation and serially for 33 wk. On the previously nonfunctioning side, there were substantial changes in VT (from 220 to 600 ml) and tdi (from 0.18 to 0.34 cm). On the side that had been stimulated, neither VT nor tdi changed appreciably (VT from 770 to 900 ml; tdi from 0.25 to 0.28 cm). We conclude that prolonged inactivation of the diaphragm causes atrophy which may be prevented by brief periods of daily phrenic nerve stimulation.
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3/126. Diagnosis and treatment of acute central cervical cord injury.

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the diagnosis and management of acute central cervical cord injury. methods: Eighty-nine patients with acute cervical central cord injury were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients were treated conservatively and 26 were treated surgically. There were two acute deaths. Eighty-seven patients were followed up for 3 months to 15 years. RESULTS: Their average neurological score (asia) was increased from 41.7 at admission to 83.1 at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Acute central cervical cord injury should be differentiated from complete spinal cord injury, cervical myelopathy, cruciate paralysis and C8 nerve root injury. When compression of nerve tissue or cervical instability is identified, operative intervention should be indicated. The prognosis is less optimistic in the patients with severe primary injury and at old age.
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4/126. electrodiagnosis in spinal cord injured persons with new weakness or sensory loss: central and peripheral etiologies.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of late neurologic decline of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Retrospective review of persons with SCI over a 9-year period. Those with complaints of new weakness or sensory loss were grouped into three categories based on clinical examination, electrodiagnosis, and imaging: (1) central pathology (ie, brain, spinal cord, or nerve root); (2) peripheral pathology (plexus or peripheral nerve); or (3) no identifiable etiology. The specific diagnoses of late neurologic decline were identified. SETTING: Regional veterans Affairs spinal cord Injury Service. patients: Five hundred two inpatient and outpatient adults with SCI. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of the study population complained of new weakness and/or sensory loss. Neurologic abnormalities were noted in 13.5%, 7.2% with central and 6.4% with peripheral causes. The most common pathologies were posttraumatic syringomyelia (2.4%) and cervical (1.6%) and lumbosacral (1.2%) myelopathy/radiculopathy. A specific etiology was not determined in 6 cases (1.6%). Peripheral involvement was mostly from ulnar nerve entrapment (3.4%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (3.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Late-onset neurologic decline is common after SCI and can result from central or peripheral pathology. Regular neurologic monitoring of SCI patients is recommended, since many with neurologic decline respond favorably if diagnosed and treated early.
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5/126. 'Shared spinal cord' scenario: paraplegia following abdominal aortic surgery under combined general and epidural anaesthesia.

    Serious neurological complications of abdominal aortic vascular surgery are rare but devastating for all involved. When epidural blockade is part of the anaesthetic technique such complications may be attributed to needles, catheters or drugs. We present a patient who developed paraplegia following an elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Continuous epidural blockade was part of the anaesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia. In this case the spinal cord damage was explained by ischaemia caused by the aortic surgery. This event has made us aware of a rare complication associated with abdominal aortic surgery and highlighted safety aspects of epidural anaesthesia in such patients.
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keywords = block
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6/126. Phantom sensations in a patient with cervical nerve root avulsion.

    This case study reports detailed phantom sensations in a 35-yr.-old man who had his C5 and C6 cervical nerve roots avulsed from the cord during a motorcycle accident at the age of 22 years. The subject, who was left with a paralyzed right deltoid muscle, anesthetic sensation along the upper lateral portion of the right arm, and absent right biceps reflex, became aware of phantom right arm and hand sensations a few months after the original injury. This finding--which has important implications for understanding the process involved in bodily perception as well as the development of these perceptions--provides evidence of a distributed neural representation of the body that has both genetic and experiential determinants. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to recent concepts of phantom limb experiences and related phenomena.
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7/126. Interfacing the body's own sensing receptors into neural prosthesis devices.

    Functional electric stimulation (FES) is today available as a tool in muscle activation used in picking up objects, in standing and walking, in controlling bladder emptying, and for breathing. Despite substantial progress over nearly three decades of development, many challenges remain to provide a more efficient functionality of FES systems. The most important of these is an improved control of the activated muscles. Instead of artificial sensors for feedback, new developments in electrodes to do long-term and reliable recordings from peripheral nerves emphasize the use of the body's own sensors. These are already installed and optimised through millions of years of natural evolution. This paper presents recent results on a system using electrical stimulation of motor nerves to produce movement and using the natural sensors as feedback signals to control the stimulation that can replicate some of the functions of the spinal cord and its communication with the brain. We have used the nerve signal recorded from cutaneous nerves in two different human applications: (1) to replace the external heel switch of a system for correction of spastic drop foot by peroneal stimulation, and (2) to provide an FES system for restoration of hand grasp with sensory feedback from the fingertip. For the bladder function, the sacral root stimulator is a useful control tool in emptying the bladder. To decide when to stimulate, we are at present carrying out experiments on pigs and cats using cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve and sacral roots to record the neural information from bladder afferents. This information can potentially be used to inhibit unwanted bladder contractions and to trigger the FES system and thereby bladder emptying. Future research will show whether cuffs and other types of electrodes can be used to reliably extract signals from the large number of other receptors in the body to improve and expand on the use of natural sensors in clinical FES systems.
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8/126. Refractory spinal cord injury induced gastroparesis: resolution with erythromycin lactobionate, a case report.

    erythromycin lactobionate (ERY), a macrolide antibiotic, has been the focus of investigation as a new gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. In individuals who are able-bodied (AB), ERY has shown promise in various forms of gastroparesis (GP). Recent evidence suggests that medications used to stimulate intestinal motility in individuals who are AB have had similar results in those individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Medications that have been used in the past for GP in SCI include metaclopramide, neostigmine, and bethanechol. In this observation, a patient with T-6 paraplegia, who developed GP secondary to acute SCI, is presented. During his hospital stay, the patient was treated with gastric decompression, bowel rest, H2 blockers, intravenous metaclopramide, and eventually required parenteral nutritional support. ERY was started and symptoms abated. At this point, the nasogastric tube was removed and oral feeding was successfully started. This case report is the first to describe a patient with refractory SCI-induced GP who responded to intravenous ERY. Further study in this area is warranted.
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9/126. Bilateral S3 nerve stimulation, a minimally invasive alternative treatment for postoperative stress incontinence after implantation of an anterior root stimulator with posterior rhizotomy: a preliminary observation.

    STUDY DESIGN: A preliminary report. OBJECTIVES: Urinary stress incontinence following implantation of an anterior root stimulator and a posterior rhizotomy is a rare complication which is difficult to treat. It is seen in patients with an open bladder neck (T9-L2 lesion). An artificial urinary sphincter is a possible treatment for this condition but has a higher failure rate in patients with neurogenic bladder disease and could complicate micturition. SETTING: Ghent, belgium. methods: A male paraplegic patient (T9, complete lesion) aged 36 was suffering from severe urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia. Preoperatively the bladder neck was closed on cystography. Following implantation (6/95) of an intradural anterior root stimulator with posterior rhizotomy, severe urinary stress incontinence presented. Bilateral S3 foramen leads were implanted and connected to a pulse generator. RESULTS: The patient has been continent with continuous stimulation of both S3 roots for 4 years, and no fatigue of the levator muscles has been seen. Preoperative urodynamics are compared to results 3 years postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Bilateral S3 stimulation is a feasible and minimally invasive treatment of urinary stress incontinence following implantation of an anterior root stimulator.
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10/126. Severe lightning pain after subarachnoid block in a patient with neuropathic pain of central origin: which drug is best to treat the pain?

    OBJECTIVE: There have been many reports that spinal anesthesia induces severe lightning pain in the lower limbs of patients with phantom limb pain, tabes dorsalis, or causalgia. We report on a patient with neuropathic pain of central origin who showed newly developed severe lightning pain after therapeutic subarachnoid block (SAB). We performed SAB 16 times in this patient, and he complained of severe pain each time. We investigated which drug was best for treating such induced pain by administering various drugs to the patient. SETTING: The patient was hospitalized for treatment and observation. PATIENT: The patient was a 48-year-old man with neuropathic pain secondary to an incomplete spinal cord injury at the cervical segment. INTERVENTIONS: Various drugs were administered for relieving the newly developed severe pain, and the effectiveness of these agents was compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous thiopental, fentanyl, butorphanol, ketamine, midazolam, droperidol, and sevoflurane-oxygen anesthesia were quite effective. Intramuscular butorphanol was not effective. Intravenous physiologic saline and atropine sulfate as a placebo, intrathecal morphine hydrochloride, intravenous mexiletine, and lidocaine were ineffective. Intravenous thiopental (approximately 1 mg/kg) was thought to obtain the best pain relief because it stopped the pain quickly, the dose needed was subanesthetic, and there was no adverse effect.
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