Cases reported "Spinal Diseases"

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1/193. Spinal epidural abscess associated with epidural catheterization: report of a case and a review of the literature.

    We describe a 53-year-old man who developed a catheter-related epidural abscess 8 days after left upper lobectomy for lung cancer. methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected in a culture of the epidural pus. magnetic resonance imaging was essential for the diagnosis of epidural abscess and for determining the extent of spread. The patient was treated by laminectomy and administration of appropriate antibiotics, with almost complete recovery, except for urinary retention. A literature search yielded 29 additional cases of catheter-related epidural abscess. The median duration of catheterization was 4 days and the median time to onset of the clinical symptoms after catheter placement was 8 days. Eleven of the 30 patients had some underlying disorders, including malignancy or herpes zoster, or were receiving steroids. Nine of the 10 patients with thoracic epidural abscess had persistent neurological deficits, whereas 12 of the 15 patients with lumbar epidural abscess showed a full recovery after treatment. Surgical decompression was not required in six patients without significant neurological deficits, who recovered following antibiotic treatment (four patients) or percutaneous drainage (two patients). Thoracic catheters are associated with a disproportionately high incidence of epidural abscess and persistent neurological sequelae following treatment.
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2/193. Paraspinal abscess following facet joint injection.

    Injection to the zygapophysial joint is a procedure which is performed frequently for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons in the management of back pain. It is generally considered to be free of significant complications. We report a patient who developed a paraspinal abscess following a lumbar facet joint injection.
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3/193. Purulent osteomyelitis of the cervical spine with epidural abscess. Operative treatment by means of dorsal and ventral approach.

    The present case concerns an acute purulent osteomyelitis with an epidural abscess, located particularly in the intervertebral foramen between C5 and C6, which led to infection by staphylococci of the adjacent vertebral arches and vertebral bodies. An obstruction of the CSF passage was discovered by myelography at the level between C5 and C6. The bony tissue changed by inflammation was removed as far as possible by laminectomy. After irrigation of the epidural space with antibiotics and after control of the severe inflammation, the vertebral bodies C6 and C7 which were destroyed by the spreading inflammatory granulations, could be removed by a ventral approach 4 weeks later. The defect was filled with spongiosa chips. After immobilisation in a plaster shell and Crutchfield extension for 8 weeks the patient was slowly mobilized. A fusion of the vertebral bodies C5 and C6, C6/C7 and C7/C1 was achieved. A dislocation of the cervical spine did not occur and the patient recovered completely except for a paresis of the right hand. Treatment of this very rare and severe case was only possible by a combined dorsal and ventral procedure on the cervical spine.
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4/193. Spinal aspergillus abscess in a patient with bronchocentric granulomatosis.

    aspergillus fumigatus hyphae is often found in the lung tissue of patients with bronchocentric granulomatosis (BCG). This organism is believed to be one agent responsible for inciting the hypersensitivity response and subsequent development of the characteristic pathology that defines BCG. The definitive etiology of this disease, however, remains conjectural. Corticosteroids represent the mainstay of therapy. The fungi recovered from patients with BCG are considered noninvasive; thus, the risk of fungal invasion secondary to steroid-induced immunosuppression is believed to be negligible. However, we report a case of spinal aspergillus abscess that developed in a patient with BCG subsequent to steroid therapy. This case also highlights the necessity for aggressive medical and neurosurgical intervention to avert the development of neurological sequelae.
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5/193. actinomycosis of the central nervous system: surgical treatment of three cases.

    Three cases of actinomycotic brain infection are described, 2 of which manifested as cerebral abscess, the third as epidural empyema. Complete resolution of the infection was always achieved by means of surgical treatment and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The cases reported emphasize the importance of a combined approach in the treatment of this unusual cause of brain infection.
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6/193. Brucellar spinal epidural abscess.

    Spinal epidural abscesses account for approximately one of every 10, 000 admissions to tertiary hospitals. The midthoracic vertebrae are the most frequently affected, whilst the cervical spine is involved in fewer patients. Staphylococcus aureus is identified as the cause in most cases of epidural abscess; other bacteria responsible include gram-negative bacteria, streptococcus species and brucella species. We report the case of a patient with cervical spondylodiscitis at level C4-C5 and an epidural abscess which was compressing the spinal cord and the retropharyngeal space. The previous symptoms of brucellosis were atypical. We discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the case.
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7/193. Pyogenic osteomyelitis of the spine in the elderly: three cases of a synchronous non-axial infection by a different pathogen.

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients over 65 years of age treated at the spine Care Unit for pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability of peripheral blood, urine and sputum cultures in the treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in the elderly. SETTING: Study performed at the spine Care Unit, Meir Hospital, Kfar-Saba, israel. methods: The Meir hospital records were searched for patients over 65 years of age, treated at the spine Care Unit for pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. charts, culture results and imaging studies were reviewed. A medline literature search was performed to survey the literature regarding pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in the elderly with emphasis on diagnostic imaging modalities and surgical treatment. RESULTS: Three patients were identified with concurrent peripheral infection by a different organism than the organism causing the vertebral osteomyelitis. Delay in correct diagnosis led to neurologic impairment in all patients and surgical treatment was performed in all three to drain the epidural abscess, decompress the spinal cord and obtain direct tissue culture. Following decompression and epidural abscess evacuation, one patient has functionally recovered and was ambulating with a cane, two patients did not recover and remained paraparetic and ambulate in a wheelchair. CONCLUSIONS: Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in the elderly can be caused by a different pathogen than that isolated from blood, sputum or urine cultures. In the elderly, a biopsy of the vertebral lesion should be obtained for susceptibility studies prior to conservative treatment with bracing and intravenous antibiotics.
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8/193. Conservative management of pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction.

    STUDY DESIGN: A report of three cases of pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction. OBJECTIVE: To describe the conservative management of pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The therapeutic approach to inflammation of the upper cervical spine is controversial. methods: Pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction is rare. In the orthopedic literature, only a few case reports with variable treatment methods are available. Three patients with pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction were treated nonoperatively. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was begun after direct cultures or blood cultures were obtained. Early mobilization was accomplished by application of a halo vest. RESULTS: Two patients recovered by spontaneous fusion of the occipitocervical junction. Instability developed in the spine of one patient, but she refused further treatment. CONCLUSIONS: diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the upper cervical spine is difficult. In cases with absence of neurologic symptoms or spinal abscess formation, treatment can be nonoperative.
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keywords = abscess
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9/193. Anterior cervical spinal epidural abscess in an infant.

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is rare in children, especially in newborns and infants, groups in which only very few cases have been reported. Because of the nonspecificity of presenting symptoms in children the diagnosis may be delayed, resulting in major permanent neurological deficits. In this paper, we report a case of cervical SEA in a 6-week-old infant who initially presented with fever and developed quadriparesis 19 days prior to admission. After emergency anterior decompression of the abscess the neurological function was improved immediately. Five months after surgery the neurological status was normal, an MR study showing disappearance of the epidural abscess and spinal cord indentation, and progressive fusion of the C3, C4 and C5 vertebral bodies. Anterior decompression without bone graft can provide an excellent prognosis in case of an anterior cervical SEA in infants.
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keywords = abscess
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10/193. Pott's disease with unstable cervical spine, retropharyngeal cold abscess and progressive airway obstruction.

    PURPOSE: retropharyngeal abscess formation has the potential for acute respiratory compromise from obstruction or secondarily from rupture. The initial attempt to secure the airway is of paramount importance. We describe a patient with an unstable cervical spine secondary to Pott's disease who developed progressively obstructing retropharyngeal cold abscess. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 33-yr-old man with an unstable C-spine in halo traction presented with progressive airway obstruction secondary to retropharyngeal abscess extending from the cervical to the mid-thoracic vertebrae. After review of computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) studies, preparations were made to secure the airway through fibreoptic assisted intubation. A conservative approach was chosen to secure the airway before surgical airway control as a first line approach. Following local and topical anesthesia, awake endoscopy was performed to assess the extent of obstruction and possibility of intubation without abscess rupture. A narrow tract along the lateral pharynx was identified to continue inferiorly to the epiglottis, from which point the cords were visualized. Extensive edema and abscess formation otherwise distorted the normal anatomy and prevented visualization from other directions. The airway was successfully secured without trauma with a well-lubricated 7.0 mm ID endotracheal tube. CONCLUSION: This report suggests that selected cases of tense obstructing retropharyngeal abscesses can be effectively managed with fibreoptic endoscopy for assessment and subsequent intubation before requiring surgical airway control as a first line strategy.
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