Cases reported "Spinal Diseases"

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1/236. Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts of different etiologies: diagnosis by CT and MR imaging.

    Intraspinal synovial cysts arises from a facet joint and may cause radicular symptoms due to nerve root compression. In the present study, three surgically and histologically proved cases of synovial cyst of the lumbar spine with different etiology are described. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the imaging features of various etiologies of intraspinal synovial cysts allowing a correct preoperative diagnosis. review of the literature enables us to say that to our knowledge, there is no reported article collecting the imaging findings of intraspinal synovial cysts with different etiologies. Only single cases with rheumatoid arthritic or traumatic origin have been reported to date. We believe that computed tomography and particularly magnetic resonance imaging are the methods of choice which provide the most valuable diagnostic information.
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2/236. Vertebra plana of the lumbar spine caused by an aneurysmal bone cyst: a case report.

    The patient was a 15-year-old girl who had a lesion of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Plain radiographs suggested vertebra plana, with complete collapse of the body of the fourth lumbar vertebra and no involvement of the intervertebral disk spaces. The presumptive diagnosis was eosinophilic granuloma. Progressive neurologic symptoms required surgical excision of the lesion, decompression, and fusion. Histopathologic examination of the operative specimen confirmed the diagnosis of an aneurysmal bone cyst.
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3/236. Conservative management of pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction.

    STUDY DESIGN: A report of three cases of pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction. OBJECTIVE: To describe the conservative management of pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The therapeutic approach to inflammation of the upper cervical spine is controversial. methods: Pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction is rare. In the orthopedic literature, only a few case reports with variable treatment methods are available. Three patients with pyogenic osteomyelitis of the occipitocervical junction were treated nonoperatively. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was begun after direct cultures or blood cultures were obtained. Early mobilization was accomplished by application of a halo vest. RESULTS: Two patients recovered by spontaneous fusion of the occipitocervical junction. Instability developed in the spine of one patient, but she refused further treatment. CONCLUSIONS: diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the upper cervical spine is difficult. In cases with absence of neurologic symptoms or spinal abscess formation, treatment can be nonoperative.
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4/236. Accurate pedicle screw insertion under the control of a computer-assisted image guiding system: laboratory test and clinical study.

    We used a commercially available computer-assisted navigation system (StealthStation; Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) in both an in-vitro and a clinical study performed in 1996-1998. The basic data used for navigation were preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan imaging data. The position of the probe or drill guide was superimposed in real-time on a monitor. For the in-vitro study, ten plastic lumbar spine models (50 vertebrae) were used. The entrance hole for the screw was made by drilling, following navigation. Using the navigation system, we drilled 88 holes through the pedicles into the vertebral bodies of 44 vertebral models. All 88 pedicle holes were contained within the pedicle without perforation. The mean deviation of the hole positions from the surgical plan was 1.78 /- 0.81 mm, and the mean angular deviation was 2.28 degrees /- 1.92 degrees. In 29 patients, using the navigation system, we introduced 169 pedicle screws at the planned position. Fifty-one screws were used for thoracic and 118 screws for lumbar spinal fixation. All screws correctly passed through the pedicles. There were no neurological complications after surgery. Using this guided surgery system, we achieved satisfactory results both in the laboratory and in a clinical setting.
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5/236. Spinal biomodeling.

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective trial of stereolithographic biomodeling in complex spinal surgery. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the use of stereolithographic biomodeling as an aid to complex spinal surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Of the array of imaging methods available to assist the spinal surgeon, no single method provides a complete overview of the anatomy, although three-dimensional imaging has been shown to have advantages. methods: Stereolithographic biomodeling is a new technology that allows data from three-dimensional computed tomographic scans to be used to generate exact plastic replicas of anatomic structures. Five patients with complex deformities were selected: two children with congenital deformities, a patient with an osteoblastoma, a patient with basilar invagination caused by osteogenesis imperfecta, and a patient with a failed lumbar fusion. Computed tomographic scanning was performed and stereolithographic biomodels generated. The stereolithographic biomodels were used for patient education, operative planning, and surgical navigation. RESULTS: The surgeons reported that biomodeling was useful in complex spinal surgery and was an effective technology. Stereolithographic biomodels were found to be particularly useful in morphologic assessment, in the planning and rehearsal of surgery, for intraoperative navigation, and for informing patients about surgical procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Stereolithographic biomodeling allows imaging data to be displayed in a physical form. This intuitive medium may improve data display and allows surgical simulation on a proxy of the surgical site. Draw-backs of the technology were a minimum 24 hours' manufacturing time and the cost.
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6/236. Anaesthetic implications of rigid spine syndrome.

    The perioperative management of a 14-year-old girl, suffering from the muscular disorder rigid spine syndrome, is presented. The anaesthetic implications with regard to possible difficult intubation, cardiac involvement, malignant hyperthermia, neuromuscular blocking agents, and postoperative recovery are discussed.
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7/236. Occipitocervicothoracic fixation for spinal instability in patients with neoplastic processes.

    OBJECT: Occipitocervicothoracic (OCT) fixation and fusion is an infrequently performed procedure to treat patients with severe spinal instability. Only three cases have been reported in the literature. The authors have retrospectively reviewed their experience with performing OCT fixation in patients with neoplastic processes, paying particular attention to method, pain relief, and neurological status. methods: From July 1994 through July 1998, 13 of 552 patients who underwent a total of 722 spinal operations at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have required OCT fixation for spinal instability caused by neoplastic processes (12 of 13 patients) or rheumatoid arthritis (one of 13 patients). Fixation was achieved by attaching two intraoperatively contoured titanium rods to the occiput via burr holes and Luque wires or cables; to the cervical spinous processes with wisconsin wires; and to the thoracic spine with a combination of transverse process and pedicle hooks. Crosslinks were used to attain additional stability. In all patients but one arthrodesis was performed using allograft. At a follow-up duration of 1 to 45 months (mean 14 months), six of the 12 patients with neoplasms remained alive, whereas the other six patients had died of malignant primary disease. There were no deaths related to the surgical procedure. Postoperatively, one patient experienced respiratory insufficiency, and two patients required revision of rotational or free myocutaneous flaps. All patients who presented with spine-based pain experienced a reduction in pain, as measured by a visual analog scale for pain. All patients who were neurologically intact preoperatively remained so; seven of seven patients with neurological impairment improved; and six of seven patients improved one Frankel grade. There were no occurrences of instrumentation failure or hardware-related complications. In one patient a revision of the instrumentation was required 13.5 months following the initial surgery for progression of malignant fibrous histiosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, OCT fixation is an effective means of attaining stabilization that can provide pain relief and neurological preservation or improvement.
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ranking = 3
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8/236. Postoperative bony stenosis of the lumbar spinal canal: evaluation of 164 symptomatic patients with axial radiography.

    Computed tomography (CT) and transverse axial tomography (TAT) were used to study the lumbar spines of 164 patients with persistent or recurrent low back pain and/or radiculopathy. Of those patients with previous spinal fusion and of those with previous disectomy, 43% and 28%, respectively, demonstrated bony stenosis of the lumbar spinal canal. Of the patients who underwent surgery for this narrowed canal, 91% showed clinical improvement.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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9/236. Efficacy of intraoperative monitoring for pediatric patients with spinal cord pathology undergoing spinal deformity surgery.

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 38 pediatric patients with spinal cord pathology who underwent corrective spinal deformity surgery from January 1989 through June 1998. OBJECTIVES: To report reliability and specificity in obtaining intraoperative data in this population. These data were compared with monitoring results obtained in a group of pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Reports in the literature suggest intraoperative monitoring for patients with spinal cord pathology may be of limited value. No optimal monitoring protocol has been suggested for this population. methods: The study group consisted of 38 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of spinal cord pathology who underwent corrective spinal deformity surgery from January 1989 through June 1998. All patients had lower extremity function. Somatosensory and neurogenic motor evoked potentials were used to monitor neurologic status during surgery. These data were compared with data obtained in 429 pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Study patients were divided into Group I, those who had had spinal cord surgery (n = 20), and Group II, those who had not (n = 18). RESULTS: Somatosensory evoked potentials were obtained in 93.2% and remained consistent with baselines in 87.2% of the study group patients. Neurogenic motor evoked potentials were obtained in 50.8% of the study subjects and remained consistent in 76.6% of those cases. The false-positive rate was 27.1% in the study group, compared with 1.4% in the group with idiopathic scoliosis. The study group had no true-positive or false-negative findings. Group I data differed from Group II data. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative monitoring should be used in patients with spinal cord pathology who undergo surgery for spinal deformity. Monitoring should not miss a neurologic deficit but demonstrates greater variability, resulting in more frequent use of an intraoperative wake-up test.
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ranking = 8
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10/236. Primary hydatid disease of the spine: an unusual cause of progressive paraplegia. Case report and review of the literature.

    Although rare, spinal hydatid disease is a manifestation of hydatid infestation. The authors present the report of a patient who presented with primary spinal hydatid disease. This disease is often misdiagnosed as tuberculous spondylitis, and thus patients may subsequently receive inappropriate treatment. The patient in this case presented, with an increasing weakness in the lower limbs, to a different clinic from an area in india where hydatid infections are endemic. The infection was misdiagnosed as tuberculous spondolytis based on evaluation of plain x-ray films, and the patient underwent antituberculous chemotherapy and a posterior surgical decompressive procedure. The patient presented to the authors' clinic with increasing paraparesis 1.5 years later. Radiographs and a magnetic resonance image of the spine were obtained, which strongly suggested hydatid disease. Examination of serum levels confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent a decompressive procedure of the spine in which stabilization was performed. Postoperatively her paraparesis resolved, and good control over the disease was achieved by chemotherapy. The authors conclude that primary spinal hydatid disease of the spine, although a rare manifestation, should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with infectious and destructive lesions of the spine in regions in which the disease is endemic. Advanced imaging studies should be performed to diagnose the disease. Early decompressive surgery with stabilization of the spine, in addition to adjuvant chemotherapy, is the treatment of choice for these patients.
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