Cases reported "Spinal Diseases"

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1/15. Cryptococcoma of the sacrum.

    Cryptococcoma of the sacrum was the initial presentation of systemic cryptococcosis in a patient on chronic steroid therapy for autoimmune hepatitis. The bone lesion was the only overt manifestation of systemic cryptococcal disease, which preceded other clinical manifestations and led to the subsequent diagnosis of systemic infection.
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2/15. Pouch-sacral fistula three years after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis.

    Fistula formation after restorative proctocolectomy poses a challenge to the surgeon and sometimes can lead to the excision of the pouch. A 21-year-old female patient developed an ileal J-pouch-sacral fistula with abscess and osteomyelitis of the sacrum, more than three years after the pouch construction for ulcerative colitis. Two months prior to this event, the patient had a single and transient episode of pouchitis. The role of pouchitis in the aetiopathogenesis of the fistula is unclear. To our knowledge, the late development of such a fistula has not been reported previously.
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3/15. synovial cyst at the intervertebral foramina causing lumbar radiculopathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of intraforaminal synovial cysts resulting in nerve root compression. methods: A 26 year old man presenting with left leg pain was admitted. He had no motor, sensory, or reflex changes. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-myelography showed an intra and extra foraminal, extradural, cystic lesion at L4 vertebra on the left side. RESULTS: At surgery there was a cystic mass pressing on the nerve root, and no connection or communication with the dural structures could be found. CONCLUSION: Synovial cysts are uncommon extradural degenerative lesions. Intraspinal synovial cysts occur most often at the L4-5 level, but they have been reported in all areas of the spine except the intraforaminal region and the sacrum.
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4/15. Presacral arteriovenous fistula: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We describe a case of arteriovenous fistula in front of the sacrum. drainage induced epidural venous dilation in the sacral spinal canal. The fistula was embolized endoarterially with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate via its iliac arterial feeders. In follow-up digital subtraction angiography 1 month later, the fistula was found to be totally closed. The patient was followed up clinically for 2.5 years. She has remained symptom-free. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 43-year-old woman presented with severe gluteal and perineal pain and a local sensation of hyperesthesia. The primary computed tomographic scan of the lumbosacral spine was normal, and emergency laparoscopy showed no signs of any pathological lesions. magnetic resonance imaging discovered an unidentified mass in the sacral spinal canal, and the patient was hospitalized for neurosurgery. However, surgery on this mass had to be discontinued because of profuse bleeding, and the patient was referred for angiography. INTERVENTION: Diagnostic catheter angiography revealed a high-flow arteriovenous fistula anterior to the sacrum, and the mass detected earlier by magnetic resonance imaging seemed to be a dilated epidural vein draining the fistula. The feeders of the fistula originated in both internal iliac arteries, and the fistula was occluded via these arteries in two angiographic sessions. CONCLUSION: A paraspinal arteriovenous fistula may have venous drainage through the epidural venous plexus, and the ectatic veins may induce radicular symptomology. To the best of our knowledge, a paraspinal fistula at such a presacral location has not been documented previously. An unidentified mass in the sacral spinal canal should be suspected of being a dilated vascular structure. Prompt angiographic examinations with an option for embolization should be performed, and open surgical intervention should be avoided.
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5/15. Sacral inflammatory pseudotumor revealed by paraneoplastic syndrome.

    There is still debate on whether inflammatory pseudotumor should be considered benign or malignant. This lesion has only been reported twice in bone, apart from cases complicating foreign body reaction to joint replacement arthroplasty. We report here a third case, localized at the sacrum. A 31-year-old man had inflammatory dorsalgia and polyarthralgia without synovitis but with fever, asthenia, and erythema nodosa. Biological tests and x-rays were not informative, but technetium scintigraphy revealed a high level of left sacroiliac tracer binding. Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and sulfasalazine treatment were given over 3 months but ineffective. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed an osteolytic tumor of the sacrum. biopsy suggested a malignant fibrosarcoma, but complete evaluation after surgical resection demonstrated an inflammatory pseudotumor. All clinical symptoms disappeared within a few days after surgery, which is suggestive of a paraneoplastic syndrome. No relapse has occurred after 4 years.
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6/15. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis: two cases of sacral disease responsive to corticosteroids.

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare inflammatory form of osteomyelitis of unknown etiology. It affects children and adolescents, and signs and symptoms include recurrent episodes of bone pain, tenderness, possible constitutional upset, and increased inflammatory markers. We present 2 patients with cases of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis affecting the sacrum who responded dramatically to treatment with corticosteroids.
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7/15. Sacral cysts with exophytic components. A report of two cases.

    Sacral cysts are rare lesions. Two cases are presented, an aneurysmal bone cyst and a simple cyst. Simple cysts have not previously been described in the sacrum. Both cysts were asymptomatic, had similar radiographic appearances, and displayed significant exophytic components.
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8/15. Giant sacral perineurial cyst. A case report.

    A rare case of giant sacral perineurial cyst, causing sciatic pain, explored by myelography and computerized tomography, is reported. The cyst, associated with large erosion of the sacrum, was poorly visualized on the myelography, because of its large size, whereas it was better defined on CT scan. Sacral perineurial cysts are usually small and asymptomatic and rarely cause radicular symptoms. The radiological diagnosis and the treatment of these nerve root cysts are briefly discussed.
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9/15. magnetic resonance imaging in myelocystoceles. Report of two cases.

    Two cases of terminal myelocystocele, a rare localized cystic dilatation of the caudal spinal central canal, are reviewed. magnetic resonance imaging is a useful diagnostic tool for its evaluation. Terminal myelocystocele consists of the following: a myelocystocele which contains a "trumpet-like" flaring of the distal spinal cord central canal and thus is partially lined by ependymal tissue; a meningocele or dilated subarachnoid space located around the myelocystocele, which bulges into the subcutaneous region; and fibrolipomatous tissue surrounding the two cysts. This condition is usually associated with abnormalities of the vertebral column and sacrum as well as compression of the spinal cord and meningocele by a fibrous band. There is a possible relationship of the myelocystocele to teratogens such as loperamide HCl and retinoic acid, although the exact etiology of this entity is not known.
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10/15. Lumbosciatic pain due to sacral pathology.

    Lesions of the sacrum are a possible, albeit infrequent, cause of low back pain and sciatica. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this possibility which, perhaps due to the rarity of sacral pathologies, is often overlooked in the investigation of lumbosciatic pain. This may influence the prognosis because of the consequent delay in diagnosis. Several cases are reported which were initially operated on for radicular disc syndromes with negative results, and only later correctly diagnosed as sacral lesions.
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