Cases reported "Spinal Fractures"

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1/150. Complete rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra managed by posterior surgery. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a young man with rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra, treated by posterior surgery. OBJECTIVES: To describe the management of a rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra by posterior surgery consisting of reduction, decompression, fusion, and transpedicular instrumentation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgery is the generally recommended means of managing lumbar burst fractures with neurologic deficit. Some surgeons recommend anterior decompression, fusion, and instrumentation. Posterior surgery with decompression through laminectomy, spongioplasty of the vertebral body, interbody fusion of damaged discs, posterolateral fusion, and transpedicular fixation is also a safe and successful management technique. The combined approach consists of posterior decompression, fusion, transpedicular fixation, and anterior fusion using pelvic autografts. The optimum method of management remains in question. METHOD: An 18-year-old man with complete rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra was treated by posterior surgery. This surgery consisted of reduction, laminectomy, decompression, structure of dural sac tears, spongioplasty of the vertebral body, interbody fusion of both damaged discs, and the implantation of a transpedicular Socon fixator (Aesculap, Tuttlingen, germany), including a transverse connector. The case was documented by radiographs and computed tomography scans before surgery and after fixator removal 19 months after surgery. RESULTS: The patient healed solidly with no instrumentation failure. The neurologic deficit Frankel Grade B improved to Frankel Grade D. CONCLUSION: Surgery to manage lumbar burst fracture must include reduction, decompression, restoration and fusion of anterior and posterior elements by using autologous pelvic spongious autografts, and anterior or posterior instrumentation. Posterior surgery including suturing of dural sac tears, fusion of damaged structures, and transpedicular fixation is successful in young patients and patients with good bone quality.
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2/150. Childhood leukemia presenting with back pain and vertebral compression fractures.

    Vertebral body collapse and back pain are an unusual presentation for childhood leukemia. This report is intended to promote greater awareness that acute lymphocytic leukemia can cause significant back pain in children without other systemic symptoms. We describe four cases in which patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia presented with back pain and vertebral compression fractures. All of the patients were initially misdiagnosed. No patient had neurologic compromise, despite extensive vertebral body collapse. The back pain was relieved after chemotherapy.
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3/150. Adjacent fracture-dislocations of the lumbosacral spine: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Traumatic fracture-dislocations of the lumbosacral junction are rare, with all previously reported cases involving fracture-dislocations at a single level. No cases of multiple fracture-dislocations of contiguous spinal segments in the lumbosacral spine have been reported. A case of traumatic adjacent fracture-dislocations of the fifth lumbar segment is presented. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An 18-year-old male patient sustained open lumbar spinal trauma after a motor vehicle accident. A neurological examination revealed an L4 level. Radiographic evaluation of the spine revealed a three-column injury at L5 with spondyloptosis of the L5 vertebral body. Aorto-ilio-femoral angiography revealed no evidence of vascular injury. INTERVENTION: The patient was treated with a combined anterior and posterior approach in a two-stage operation. Six months postoperatively, he was neurologically unchanged; however, he was able to walk with the aid of a cane. Plain films revealed normal alignment of the lumbosacral spine. CONCLUSION: The management of traumatic lumbosacral fracture-dislocations requires careful consideration of retroperitoneal structures and possible exploration of the iliac vessels in addition to spinal reconstruction.
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4/150. Traumatic L5-S1 spondylolisthesis: report of three cases and a review of the literature.

    The literature reports that traumatic spondylolisthesis of L5 is an uncommon lesion. The authors report their experience of three cases of this particular fracture-dislocation of the lumbosacral spine. They stress the importance of certain radiographic signs in the diagnosis: namely, the presence of unilateral multiple fracture of the transverse lumbar apophysis. As far as the treatment is concerned, they state the need for an open reduction and an internal segmental fixation by posterior approach. A preoperative MRI study appears mandatory in order to evaluate the integrity of the L5-S1 disc. In the event of a traumatic disruption of the disc, they state the importance of posterior interbody fusion by means of a strut graft carved from the ilium or, in case of iliac wing fracture (which is not uncommon in these patients), by means of interbody cages.
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5/150. Shear fracture through the body of the axis vertebra.

    STUDY DESIGN: Three cases of a previously undescribed body fracture of the axis vertebra are presented. OBJECTIVES: To describe the radiographic features of the fracture are described, and to point out the differences to other axis body fractures regarding the mechanism of injury, stability, and treatment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Fractures involving the odontoid process usually are caused by indirect forces, and they are considered unstable injuries. Anderson and D'Alonzo Type III odontoid fractures usually are hyperflexion injuries. Superior articular process fractures with or without associated odontoid peg fractures are caused by lateral hyperflexion injuries. methods: Three cases of body fractures of the axis vertebra are described. These fractures occur in an oblique plane shearing off in one piece the odontoid process together with one of the superior articular processes. The fragment displaces anterocaudally, and the odontoid process tilts toward the affected side. RESULTS: All fractures were managed nonsurgically. The two displaced fractures did not reduce in traction, and they had united in the displaced position after the 12 weeks of halo treatment. One patient reported only minor problems, but showed radiologic evidence of facet joint arthritis at 20 months. The second patient was lost to follow-up after discontinuation of halo treatment at 12 weeks. The only undisplaced fracture was managed in a halo body jacket for 10 weeks. The patient was pain free and had regained a full range of movement at 7 months. CONCLUSIONS: The presumed mechanism of injury in the described fracture is one of asymmetrical axial compression. The fracture can be managed safely in a halo jacket.
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6/150. Traumatic total axial reversal of the thoracic vertebral body.

    Numerous vertebral fracture patterns have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a patient who sustained severe trauma to the back that resulted in a very unusual and not previously reported rotational injury consisting in complete 180 degrees rotation of the T6 vertebral body along a vertical axis, with only limited anteroposterior and lateral displacement. An unsuspected aortic tear resulted in severe evolution with fatal outcome following surgical attempt. The aetiology of such displacement is unknown. The possibility of late vascular complications should be kept in mind while treating thoracic spine fractures with rotational displacement.
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7/150. Iatrogenic vertebral body compression fracture in a premature infant caused by extreme flexion during positioning for a lumbar puncture.

    We present a case of vertebral body compression fracture that resulted from manual flexion of the spine of a premature infant in preparation for a lumbar puncture. Vertebral body fractures due to abnormal flexion in child abuse have been described. However, such fractures due to lumbar puncture-related positioning have not been reported. We present a pre-term infant who developed an L3 vertebral body compression fracture immediately after lumbar puncture.
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8/150. Posterior spinal shortening for paraplegia after vertebral collapse caused by osteoporosis.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a patient who underwent a new surgical procedure for paraplegia after vertebral collapse due to osteoporosis. OBJECTIVES: To propose a new approach to posterior spinal fusion surgery for osteoporotic patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical treatment was performed on a paraplegic patient after vertebral collapse due to osteoporosis. However, the surgery was difficult because implants such as hooks and screws often dislodged during the treatment. The poor holding power of these implants to the osteoporotic spine is a challenging problem in this treatment. methods: When a fractured vertebra is shortened by resecting the posterior part of the spine and the application of a compression force, a short vertebra is produced. As a result, the thoracic kyphosis decreases and the force pushing the upper thoracic spine inferio-ventrally also decreases. RESULTS: A 74-year-old woman with T12 vertebral collapse was treated with this new method. Lateral Cobb angle (T10-L2) was reduced from 26 to 4 degrees after surgery. The shortened vertebral body united, and after 33 months, the implant had not dislodged and no loss of correction was seen. CONCLUSION: The posterior spinal shortening can be a choice for treating delayed paraplegia after osteoporotic vertebral fracture.
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9/150. Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis presenting as single spinal compression fracture: a case report and review of the literature.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) presenting as single collapsed vertebral body without narrowing of the intervertebral disc space, and review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of PVO showing atypical radiological change and call attention to this condition so that others may avoid this diagnostic pitfall. SETTING: japan. methods: A 62-year-old diabetic woman with suspected T12 pathological fracture of malignant spinal tumor and neurological involvement received urgent anterior decompression and spinal reconstruction without biopsy. RESULTS: Anterior decompression and spinal reconstruction was performed, but histological examination of the specimen after surgery unexpectedly revealed PVO. The surgery was followed by therapy with antibiotics for 7 months. A follow-up radiograph at 5 years after surgery revealed that solid consolidation has been achieved. CONCLUSIONS: diagnosis of PVO presenting with single spinal compression fracture is very difficult. Although the finding of the high signal intensity in the lesion equal to or higher than that of the cerebrospinal fluid on T2-weighted MR image seemed to be the most reliable diagnostic modality retrospectively, diagnosis of this type of PVO is impossible without histology. A needle biopsy before surgery is strongly recommended.
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10/150. osteoporosis with vertebral fractures associated with pregnancy and lactation.

    Three cases of young women who developed severe vertebral osteoporosis after pregnancy and during lactation are described. These patients shared several features: a low-calcium diet during most of their lives, very-low body weight in two patients, and a positive family history of osteoporosis in two patients. Initial studies disclosed vertebral fractures, severely diminished bone mineral density of the spine (Z score = -3.3 to -4.1), and a less severely affected bone mineral density of the hip (Z score = -1.6 to -2.3). During the prolonged follow-up of these patients, treated with oral biphosphonates, vitamin d, and calcium, an improved clinical response with a marked recovery of spine bone mineral density was observed. Poor general nutrition, low calcium intake, and a positive family history of osteoporosis appear to be strong risk factors for pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis. Although the mechanism of action is uncertain, calcium, vitamin d, and antiresorptive agents may have been beneficial in the treatment of this severe disorder.
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