Cases reported "Spinal Fractures"

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1/155. Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts of different etiologies: diagnosis by CT and MR imaging.

    Intraspinal synovial cysts arises from a facet joint and may cause radicular symptoms due to nerve root compression. In the present study, three surgically and histologically proved cases of synovial cyst of the lumbar spine with different etiology are described. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the imaging features of various etiologies of intraspinal synovial cysts allowing a correct preoperative diagnosis. review of the literature enables us to say that to our knowledge, there is no reported article collecting the imaging findings of intraspinal synovial cysts with different etiologies. Only single cases with rheumatoid arthritic or traumatic origin have been reported to date. We believe that computed tomography and particularly magnetic resonance imaging are the methods of choice which provide the most valuable diagnostic information.
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2/155. Bochdalek hernia in adulthood: a case report and review of recent literature.

    A 37-year-old Filipino woman presented with a post road-traffic accident fracture of dorsal spine 12. Chest radiograph revealed evidence of loops of small bowel in the left lung field. She admitted to symptoms of respiratory insufficiency since birth and treatment for tuberculosis in childhood. A pre-operative diagnosis of left traumatic diaphragmatic hernia was not confirmed at laparotomy which revealed typical left congenital Bochdalek hernia with smooth edges and herniation of small bowel and spleen into the left pleural cavity. Following reduction and repair of the hernia, the patient made an uneventful recovery. Chest radiograph remains normal till now, eight years post-operatively.
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3/155. Adjacent fracture-dislocations of the lumbosacral spine: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Traumatic fracture-dislocations of the lumbosacral junction are rare, with all previously reported cases involving fracture-dislocations at a single level. No cases of multiple fracture-dislocations of contiguous spinal segments in the lumbosacral spine have been reported. A case of traumatic adjacent fracture-dislocations of the fifth lumbar segment is presented. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An 18-year-old male patient sustained open lumbar spinal trauma after a motor vehicle accident. A neurological examination revealed an L4 level. Radiographic evaluation of the spine revealed a three-column injury at L5 with spondyloptosis of the L5 vertebral body. Aorto-ilio-femoral angiography revealed no evidence of vascular injury. INTERVENTION: The patient was treated with a combined anterior and posterior approach in a two-stage operation. Six months postoperatively, he was neurologically unchanged; however, he was able to walk with the aid of a cane. Plain films revealed normal alignment of the lumbosacral spine. CONCLUSION: The management of traumatic lumbosacral fracture-dislocations requires careful consideration of retroperitoneal structures and possible exploration of the iliac vessels in addition to spinal reconstruction.
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4/155. Pediatric atlantoaxial instability: management with screw fixation.

    Sixteen pediatric patients (age range 3-15 years; mean 9.4 years) with atlantoaxial instability underwent screw fixation at Columbus Children's Hospital between 1992 and 1998. Three patients with type II odontoid fractures underwent odontoid screw fixation. The remaining group of 13 patients had posterior C1-2 transarticular screw fixation and Sonntag C1-2 fusion. The group included 3 patients with rotatory C1-2 fixation, 4 patients with os odontoideum, 4 patients with congenital atlantoaxial instability and 2 patients with traumatic C1-2 instability. Postoperatively, all patients were placed in a Miami-J collar only. At 3 months follow-up, all patients achieved fusion. Bony fusion across the fracture line was clearly evident in patients with odontoid screws. The only complications in this series were a transient swallowing difficulty that resolved spontaneously in 2 weeks, and another patient's C1-2 fusion had extended to C2-3 at 9 months follow-up. This study demonstrates that children at 3 years of age and older, who sustain a type II odontoid fracture with an intact transverse ligament, can be safely managed with odontoid screws if the fracture is less than 4 weeks old. Posterior C1-2 transarticular screw fixation can be done safely and results in a high fusion rate in children older than 4 years of age. The technical difficulties of screw fixation in children are discussed.
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5/155. Entrapment and obstruction of the esophagus from thoracic spine hyperextension-dislocation injury.

    We have reported a unique case of esophageal entrapment and obstruction from a thoracic spine hyperextension-dislocation injury after a motor vehicle crash. Because the risk for esophageal injury is not typically associated with thoracic spine injury, a heightened sensitivity for developing symptoms and signs is at least necessary. As with any injury to the gastrointestinal tract, optimal therapy requires resuscitation and prompt operative intervention.
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6/155. Neurologic compromise after an isolated laminar fracture of the cervical spine.

    STUDY DESIGN: Report of a rare fracture of the cervical spine. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate the importance of the cervical spinolaminar line in the diagnosis of this unusual injury and to comment on appropriate investigations, management, and outcome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Laminar fractures of the cervical spine are uncommon and are often missed. They usually occur after a hyperextension injury. It is unusual for these injuries to cause neurologic compromise. The injury reported here differs in that it was a result of direct trauma to the posterior aspect of the neck, and there was a significant neurologic deficit. methods: The clinical findings, roentgenographic appearance, treatment, complications, and follow-up assessment are presented and discussed. RESULTS: Initial neurologic examination revealed a right hemiparesis. Radiographs showed disruption of the spinolaminar line at C5 and a computed tomography scan revealed a fracture of the lamina of C5 with spinal canal encroachment. Management included high-dose corticosteroid administration and a posterior spinal decompression. The patient's initial postoperative course was complicated by acute pulmonary edema, which responded well to intravenous furosemide and ventilation. Follow-up assessment showed significant neurologic improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The satisfactory outcome in the case of this rare injury was the result of a prompt, accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.
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7/155. Posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation in the treatment of displaced type II odontoid fractures in the geriatric population--review of seven cases.

    BACKGROUND: Seven geriatric patients presented with displaced Type II odontoid fractures. All patients underwent a posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation between November 1994 and December 1996. Ages ranged between 63 and 88 years. methods: Fractures were treated with placement of bilateral transarticular screws, allowing immediate fixation, except in one patient, for whom only a unilateral screw was used. An autograft interspinous strut was also placed, allowing three-point fixation. Mean follow-up was 10.6 months. RESULTS: Six patients received rigid fixation and developed a stable union. One patient died before any follow-up could be obtained. Two other patients died within 1 year of unrelated causes. The remaining four patients remain active and independent. One intraoperative vertebral artery injury was identified. No clinical sequalae were noted. CONCLUSION: Posterior transarticular screw fixation is a reasonable option in treating these controversial fractures. Seven geriatric patients tolerated this surgery well, and were mobilized early, avoiding complications related to external immobilization.
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8/155. Spinal instrumentation for unstable C1-2 injury.

    Seventeen patients with unstable C1-2 injuries were treated between 1990 and 1997. Various methods of instrumentation surgery were performed in 16 patients, excluding a case of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Posterior stabilization was carried out in 14 cases using Halifax interlaminar clamp, Sof'wire or Danek cable, or more recently, transarticular screws. Transodontoid anterior screw fixation was performed in four cases of odontoid process fractures, with posterior instrumentation in two cases because of malunion. Rigid internal fixation by instrumentation surgery for the unstable C1-2 injury avoids long-term application of a Halo brace and facilitates early rehabilitation. However, the procedure is technically demanding with the risk of neural and vascular injuries, particularly with posterior screw fixation. Sagittal reconstruction of thin-sliced computed tomography scans at the C1-2 region, neuronavigator, and intraoperative fluoroscopy are essential to allow preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance.
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ranking = 3
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9/155. Laminar and arch fractures with dural tear and nerve root entrapment in patients operated upon for thoracic and lumbar spine injuries.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the neurological outcome in patients with laminar fractures associated with dural tears and nerve root entrapment, operated upon for thoracic and lumbar spine injuries. PATIENT population: Out of 103 patients operated upon consecutively for thoracic and lumbar spine injuries during the period 1990 to 1994 inclusive, 24 (23.3%) patients had laminar fractures out of whom 3 (2.9%) had an associated dural tear and an other 17 (16.5% or 70.8% of the total patients with laminar fractures) had an associated dural tear and nerve root entrapment. RESULTS: Twelve (70.5%) patients had injury at the thoraculumbar junction, 13 (76.5%) had Magerl's type A3 or above, 10 (58.8%) had a kyphotic angle deformity greater than 5 degrees. Seven (41.1%) had their spinal canal's sagittal diameter reduced by at least 50% and two had dislocations. Nine (52.9%) had initial neurological deficits. Four (50%) out of 8 patients with no initial neurological deficits (Frankel E) worsened to Frankel D. However, one patient among the 3 with initial Frankel A improved to Frankel C while both patients with initial Frankel C usefully improved to final Frankel grades D and E respectively. Two of the four patients with initial Frankel D improved to Frankel E, the other 2 remaining unchanged. All in all five patients neurological status improved, 4 worsened and 8 remained unchanged after neurosurgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical laminar fractures with dural tears and nerve root entrapment represent a special group of thoracic and lumbar spine injuries that carry a poor prognosis. However, special operative precautions lead to significant improvement in some of them although a majority remain unchanged or even worsened.
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10/155. Management of an unstable lumbar fracture with a laminar split.

    This is a case report describing the injury sustained by a 36-year-old man injured in a motorcycle crash who sustained a fracture dislocation of L2 upon L3, associated with a split in the lamina of L3. His neurologic lesion was T12 asia B: with a motor score of 52 but with preservation of sensory function (sensory score 96) in most parts of his lower extremities. He also suffered a lower extremity fracture. Imaging of the spine is presented showing a multiplanar fracture associated with translation and with a defect in the lamina that may be seen in certain AO type B or type C fractures, that may entrap the lumbar spinal nerve roots. Discussants of this case comment on the classification and clinical significance of this fracture pattern. and present their operative approaches, both for management of this particular fracture pattern and for any associated dural tear. The issues of steroid use and the place of rehabilitation are also discussed.
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