Cases reported "spinal fractures"

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1/851. Transoral fusion with internal fixation in a displaced hangman's fracture.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case is reported in which late displacement of a "hangman's fracture" was managed by transoral C2-C3 fusion by using bicortical iliac crest graft and a titanium cervical locking plate. OBJECTIVES: To review the management of unstable fractures of the axis and to study other reports of transoral instrumentation of the cervical spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Undisplaced fractures of the axis are considered to be stable injuries. Although late displacement is unusual, it can lead to fracture nonunion with persisting instability and spinal cord dysfunction. In this situation, an anterior fusion of the second and third cervical vertebrae is preferred to a posterior fusion from the atlas to the third cervical vertebra, which would abolish lateral rotation between C1 and C2. methods: The literature on hangman's fractures was reviewed. Clinical and radiographic details of a case of C2 instability were recorded, and the particular problems posed by late displacement were considered. RESULTS: There are no other reports of transoral instrumentation of the cervical spine. A sound fusion of C2-C3 was obtained without infection or other complications. Good neck movement returned by 6 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Undisplaced fractures of the axis are not always stable. The transoral route allows good access for stabilization of displaced hangman's fractures. In special circumstances, a locking plate may prove useful in securing the bone graft. The cervical spine locking plate can be inserted transorally with no complications and by using standard instrumentation. ( info)

2/851. Complete rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra managed by posterior surgery. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a young man with rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra, treated by posterior surgery. OBJECTIVES: To describe the management of a rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra by posterior surgery consisting of reduction, decompression, fusion, and transpedicular instrumentation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgery is the generally recommended means of managing lumbar burst fractures with neurologic deficit. Some surgeons recommend anterior decompression, fusion, and instrumentation. Posterior surgery with decompression through laminectomy, spongioplasty of the vertebral body, interbody fusion of damaged discs, posterolateral fusion, and transpedicular fixation is also a safe and successful management technique. The combined approach consists of posterior decompression, fusion, transpedicular fixation, and anterior fusion using pelvic autografts. The optimum method of management remains in question. METHOD: An 18-year-old man with complete rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra was treated by posterior surgery. This surgery consisted of reduction, laminectomy, decompression, structure of dural sac tears, spongioplasty of the vertebral body, interbody fusion of both damaged discs, and the implantation of a transpedicular Socon fixator (Aesculap, Tuttlingen, germany), including a transverse connector. The case was documented by radiographs and computed tomography scans before surgery and after fixator removal 19 months after surgery. RESULTS: The patient healed solidly with no instrumentation failure. The neurologic deficit Frankel Grade B improved to Frankel Grade D. CONCLUSION: Surgery to manage lumbar burst fracture must include reduction, decompression, restoration and fusion of anterior and posterior elements by using autologous pelvic spongious autografts, and anterior or posterior instrumentation. Posterior surgery including suturing of dural sac tears, fusion of damaged structures, and transpedicular fixation is successful in young patients and patients with good bone quality. ( info)

3/851. Extension of phenotype associated with structural mutations in type I collagen: siblings with juvenile osteoporosis have an alpha2(I)Gly436 --> Arg substitution.

    Mutations in the type I collagen genes have been identified as the cause of all four types of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We now report a mutation that extends the phenotype associated with structural abnormalities in type I collagen. Two siblings presented with a history of back pain and were diagnosed with juvenile osteoporosis, based on clinical and radiological examination. Radiographs showed decreased lumbar bone density and multiple compression fractures throughout the thoracic and lumbar spines of both patients. One child has moderate short stature and mild neurosensory hearing loss. However, neither child has incurred the long bone fractures characteristic of OI. Protein studies demonstrated electrophoretically abnormal type I collagen in samples from both children. Enzymatic cleavage of rna:rna hybrids identified a mismatch in type I collagen alpha2 (COL1A2) mRNA. dna sequencing of COL1A2 cDNA subclones defined the mismatch as a single-base mutation (1715G --> A) in both children. This mutation predicts the substitution of arginine for glycine at position 436 (G436R) in the helical domain of the alpha2(I) chain. Analysis of genomic dna identified the mutation in the asymptomatic father, who is presumably a germ-line mosaic carrier. The presence of the same heterozygous mutation in two siblings strongly suggests that the probands display the full phenotype. Taken together, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings of this study extend the phenotype associated with type I collagen mutations to cases with only spine manifestations and variable short stature into adolescence. ( info)

4/851. Transverse fracture of the second sacral vertebra: description of a clinical case.

    The authors report a rare case of transverse fracture of the second sacral vertebra that was isolated, with neurologic deficit, and treated conservatively by reduction opposing the trauma mechanism, and immobilization in plaster. After 22 months there was good neurologic recovery, although some perineal sensory disorders persisted, as did sexual deficit. This method is believed to be a valid one as an alternative to surgery, which is difficult, and not without complications. ( info)

5/851. Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts of different etiologies: diagnosis by CT and MR imaging.

    Intraspinal synovial cysts arises from a facet joint and may cause radicular symptoms due to nerve root compression. In the present study, three surgically and histologically proved cases of synovial cyst of the lumbar spine with different etiology are described. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the imaging features of various etiologies of intraspinal synovial cysts allowing a correct preoperative diagnosis. review of the literature enables us to say that to our knowledge, there is no reported article collecting the imaging findings of intraspinal synovial cysts with different etiologies. Only single cases with rheumatoid arthritic or traumatic origin have been reported to date. We believe that computed tomography and particularly magnetic resonance imaging are the methods of choice which provide the most valuable diagnostic information. ( info)

6/851. pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with elevated levels of circulating parathyroid hormone-related protein: a report of two cases.

    Two lactating women who had complained of back pain developed spontaneous vertebral fractures with low bone mineral density (BMD) several months postpartum. The back pain and biochemical abnormalities presented as hypercalcemia and elevated plasma levels of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) that returned to normal indices with increasing BMD after weaning. The increased circulating PTH-rP might contribute to the pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in women who probably are already osteopenic. ( info)

7/851. Complete upper airway obstruction during awake fibreoptic intubation in patients with unstable cervical spine fractures.

    PURPOSE: To describe the presentation and management of complete upper airway obstruction with life threatening arterial oxygen desaturation that occurred during attempted awake fibreoptic intubation in two patients presenting with unstable C-spine injury. CLINICAL FEATURE: Complete upper airway obstruction occurred during awake fibreoptic intubation of two men (ASA II; 68 & 55 yr old) presenting with unstable C-spine fractures. In both cases, bag and mask ventilation with CPAP failed to relieve the progressive hypoxemia. A surgical airway was established urgently to oxygenate the two patients who were suffering progressive life-threatening oxygen desaturation. One patient had trans-cricothyroid jet ventilation performed through a 16G intravenous cannula prior to an urgent tracheostomy. In the other patient, an emergency tracheostomy was inserted. Interestingly, both patients had been sedated in the Neurosurgical intensive care Unit with morphine and benzodiazepines before their scheduled surgeries. The most likely etiology for the complete upper airway obstruction was laryngospasm due to inadequate topicalization of the airway and additional sedation given in the operating room. Neither patients suffered any new neurological deficits following these events. They went on to have uneventful surgeries. CONCLUSION: This case report suggest that prior to awake fibreoptic intubation, oxygenation, adequate topicalization with testing to verify the lack of pharyngeal and laryngeal responses and careful assessment of sedation levels in the operating room are prudent for a safe endoscopic intubation. ( info)

8/851. Neurological complications in insufficiency fractures of the sacrum. Three case-reports.

    Three cases of nerve root compromise in elderly women with insufficiency fractures of the sacrum are reported. Neurological compromise is generally felt to be exceedingly rare in this setting. A review of 493 cases of sacral insufficiency fractures reported in the literature suggested an incidence of about 2%. The true incidence is probably higher since many case-reports provided only scant information on symptoms; furthermore, sphincter dysfunction and lower limb paresthesia were the most common symptoms and can readily be overlooked or misinterpreted in elderly patients with multiple health problems. The neurological manifestations were delayed in some cases. A full recovery was the rule. The characteristics of the sacral fracture were not consistently related with the risk of neurological compromise. In most cases there was no displacement and in many the foramina were not involved. The pathophysiology of the neurological manifestations remains unclear. We suggest that patients with sacral insufficiency fractures should be carefully monitored for neurological manifestations. ( info)

9/851. Type I osteogenesis imperfecta: diagnostic difficulties.

    A 65-year-old woman presented with vertebral fractures of the lumbar spine and a history of pathological fractures following minor trauma, which had occurred before the onset of menopause. Her past medical history was significant for intermittent low back pain since childhood, which was attributed to thoracolumbar scoliosis. A diagnosis of unclassifiable osteoporosis was made until invasive diagnostic procedures suggested a mild form of type I osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In unclear or atypical perimenopausal osteoporosis and diagnosis of OI should be considered. ( info)

10/851. Bochdalek hernia in adulthood: a case report and review of recent literature.

    A 37-year-old Filipino woman presented with a post road-traffic accident fracture of dorsal spine 12. Chest radiograph revealed evidence of loops of small bowel in the left lung field. She admitted to symptoms of respiratory insufficiency since birth and treatment for tuberculosis in childhood. A pre-operative diagnosis of left traumatic diaphragmatic hernia was not confirmed at laparotomy which revealed typical left congenital Bochdalek hernia with smooth edges and herniation of small bowel and spleen into the left pleural cavity. Following reduction and repair of the hernia, the patient made an uneventful recovery. Chest radiograph remains normal till now, eight years post-operatively. ( info)
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