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1/6. prenatal diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy type I (Werdnig- hoffmann) by dna deletion analysis of cultivated amniocytes.

    AIM: Presentation of a prenatally diagnosed case of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, the most severe type of spinal muscular atrophy. methods: dna obtained from cultivated amniocytes was analyzed for deletions in the survival motor neuron gene and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene. RESULTS: The fetus was diagnosed as an affected homozygote for deletions in exon 7 and exon 8 of the survival motor neuron gene. No deletions of exon 5 in the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene were found. CONCLUSION: Direct dna deletion analysis of the survival motor neuron gene and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene in affected families represents a highly reliable and fast method for prenatal diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease.
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keywords = apoptosis
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2/6. Congenital club foot with survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1) gene deletion.

    A boy with nonreducible bilateral congenital talipes equinovarus had delayed milestones with early-onset generalized hypotonia and muscular weakness. The condition remained stable until he was 8 years old. A slow worsening of motor abilities, with myopathic signs, was observed thereafter. A homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of the survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1) gene was found, without neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene deletion, leading to the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy. Independent ambulation was lost when he was 13 years old. The occurrence of congenital clubfoot with early onset of neurologic signs, but with a very slowly progressive course, has not been reported in spinal muscular atrophy until now.
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keywords = apoptosis
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3/6. Significant increase in the number of the SMN2 gene copies in an adult-onset Type III spinal muscular atrophy patient with homozygous deletion of the NAIP gene.

    The patient was a 57-year-old Japanese man who gradually developed muscle atrophy and weakness in the trunk and limbs since the age of 20 years and was wheelchair bound at the age of 56 years. The gene copy number assay confirmed the combined homozygous deletion of the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) genes and showed the presence of 4 copies of the SMN2 gene. In this patient, the significant increase in the number of the SMN2 gene copies should compensate for the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene and make his disease milder despite the absence of the NAIP gene. Taken together with our previous data, we may reasonably hypothesize that the SMN2 gene copy number is more critical in determining the severity of the disease compared to the NAIP genotype.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = apoptosis
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4/6. Acute infantile spinal muscular atrophy. Muscle apoptosis as a proposed pathogenetic mechanism.

    biopsy as well as autopsy studies of a child who died 8 weeks after birth from the acute infantile form of spinal muscular atrophy revealed classical morphological changes, including degeneration and loss of motoneurons in the spinal cord, loss of large myelinated fibres in anterior roots and neurogenic atrophy in muscle. New ultrastructural findings include massive muscle cell elimination by apoptosis with the formation of membrane-bound muscle cell fragments, apoptotic bodies. In addition, numerous immature muscle fibres were observed. The morphological findings raise the possibility that in a severely growth-retarded muscle, the process of muscle cell apoptosis removes the peripheral target of anterior horn cells resulting in secondary motoneuron death.
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ranking = 2
keywords = apoptosis
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5/6. Axonal neuropathy and predominance of type II myofibers in infantile spinal muscular atrophy.

    Two affected siblings with infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA I) presented with generalized muscular hypotonia, which progressed to early death. Quadriceps muscle biopsy did not show the typical neurogenic pattern of spinal muscular atrophy. The histochemical fiber type determination revealed a predominance of type II fibers without type I hypertrophy, an unprecedented finding in spinal muscular atrophy. sural nerve biopsy exhibited findings typical for axonal neuropathy. In one patient, electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves showed an inexcitability of motor and sensory nerves. Genetic studies revealed homozygous deletions of the telomeric survival motor neuron (SMN) gene and the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene in the affected children. This is the second case report of molecular genetically proven spinal muscular atrophy associated with axonal neuropathy. We conclude atypical findings on muscle biopsy and evidence of axonal neuropathy are compatible with the diagnosis of infantile spinal muscular atrophy.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = apoptosis
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6/6. Large-scale deletions in a Chinese infant associated with a variant form of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease.

    A Chinese male infant with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), ventricular and atrial septal defects, and Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (WHD) had deletions of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN(T)) and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein genes. Children with AMC or congenital heart disease, or both, and motor neuron disease should undergo testing for SMN(T) deletion. This rare association further illustrates the variable phenotypic expressions of WHD.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = apoptosis
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