Cases reported "Spinal Neoplasms"

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1/258. A case of chordoma in association with rectal carcinoma.

    A 74-year-old male patient presented with anal and sacral pain 18 months after abdomino-perineal resection for rectal cancer. Computerized tomography (CT) of the pelvis demonstrated a well defined mass anterior to the lower sacrum, posteriorly infiltrating and destroying the fourth and fifth sacral nerves and invading the right gluteal fossa. A 7.5 x 15 x 2 cm encapsulated mass was demonstrated during the operation using a posterior approach and the lower sacral segments together with the tumour were removed by amputation at S3 level. Histopathology revealed chordoma. This case is unique because of the rarity of chordoma in association with rectal tumour at the sacrococcygeal region.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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2/258. bone marrow metastases in disseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: case report with ultrastructural study and review.

    A case of desseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in an 18-year-old male with leuco-erythroblastic anaemia is described. Numerous bizarre malignant cells, including frequent multinucleated giant cells, were seen in bone marrow aspirates, and osteolytic lesions appeared late in the clinical course. The primary site of the neoplasm remained undertermined during life and also at necropsy, which revealed minute pulmonary metastases and extensive lymph nodal, pleural and skeletal deposits. The diagnosis was confirmed on necropsy tissue by ultrastructural examination which demonstrated numerous thin (5 nm) and thick (15 nm) intracytoplasmic filaments in tumour cells, sometimes organized in bundles; scattered dense Z-band-like bodies, and rod-shaped structures were also seen. The fine structure of the rhabdomyosarcoma in the present case is compared with previous ultrastructural studies. Elongated, thick intracytoplasmic filaments whose diameter corresponds to that of myosin myofilaments are strong evidence for rhabdomyoblastic differentiation and are considered to be the sine qua non of a positive electron microscopic diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Orgaized bundles of filaments and Z-band-like dense bodies are usually present, and rod-shaped structures are found infrequently, but none of these are necessary for the ultrastructural diagnosis.
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ranking = 11.144419600031
keywords = neoplasm
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3/258. A staff dialogue on caring for a cancer patient who commits suicide: psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and caregivers.

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The Center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum during which caregivers discuss a specific cancer patient, reflect on the important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from their fellow staff members. The case presented was of a 31-year-old man who developed adenocarcinoma of the lung with painful bone metastases. His tumor was unresponsive to treatment and he subsequently committed suicide by shooting himself. The verbatim and subsequent discussion raised a number of issues. Staff were devastated by the violent way that he ended his life. They questioned whether more could have been done to prevent this outcome, yet acknowledged that it mirrored the way he had lived, and were able to discuss the values by which we live and die. Some, but not all, felt that the patient had the right to choose how and when to end his life.
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ranking = 6
keywords = cancer
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4/258. Atypical presentation of vertebral bone metastasis from lung cancer.

    The authors describe a case of lung cancer in a 55-year-old man who complained of back pain. Initial isotopic bone scanning showed no abnormality, however, magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging revealed bone metastasis in thoracic vertebral bone. Even when there is no typical findings of metastasis in bone scintigraphy, MRI imaging would be useful if vertebral bone metastasis is suspected. MRI imaging is an important modality to evaluate extraosseous extension and marrow invasion of metastatic tumors.
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ranking = 5
keywords = cancer
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5/258. Occipitocervicothoracic fixation for spinal instability in patients with neoplastic processes.

    OBJECT: Occipitocervicothoracic (OCT) fixation and fusion is an infrequently performed procedure to treat patients with severe spinal instability. Only three cases have been reported in the literature. The authors have retrospectively reviewed their experience with performing OCT fixation in patients with neoplastic processes, paying particular attention to method, pain relief, and neurological status. methods: From July 1994 through July 1998, 13 of 552 patients who underwent a total of 722 spinal operations at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have required OCT fixation for spinal instability caused by neoplastic processes (12 of 13 patients) or rheumatoid arthritis (one of 13 patients). Fixation was achieved by attaching two intraoperatively contoured titanium rods to the occiput via burr holes and Luque wires or cables; to the cervical spinous processes with wisconsin wires; and to the thoracic spine with a combination of transverse process and pedicle hooks. Crosslinks were used to attain additional stability. In all patients but one arthrodesis was performed using allograft. At a follow-up duration of 1 to 45 months (mean 14 months), six of the 12 patients with neoplasms remained alive, whereas the other six patients had died of malignant primary disease. There were no deaths related to the surgical procedure. Postoperatively, one patient experienced respiratory insufficiency, and two patients required revision of rotational or free myocutaneous flaps. All patients who presented with spine-based pain experienced a reduction in pain, as measured by a visual analog scale for pain. All patients who were neurologically intact preoperatively remained so; seven of seven patients with neurological impairment improved; and six of seven patients improved one Frankel grade. There were no occurrences of instrumentation failure or hardware-related complications. In one patient a revision of the instrumentation was required 13.5 months following the initial surgery for progression of malignant fibrous histiosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, OCT fixation is an effective means of attaining stabilization that can provide pain relief and neurological preservation or improvement.
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ranking = 11.144419600031
keywords = neoplasm
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6/258. Cervical metastasis of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx.

    An occult, laterocervical papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue was found in a functional neck dissection for larynx cancer. The patient was a 76-year-old man with a history of smoking and alcohol ingestion who presented with a supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx located at the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis, left aryepiglottic fold, band and left ventricle with extension to the left vocal cord. light microscopy showed a lymph node with a fibrous stroma with lymphoid follicles that presented a total substitution of the parenchyma by a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although examination of the thyroid gland by seriated sections did not reveal any neoplasm, we argue that the papillary thyroid tissue is metastatic.
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ranking = 12.144419600031
keywords = neoplasm, cancer
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7/258. Spinal angiolipomas: report of a case and review of the cases published since the discovery of the tumour in 1890.

    Angiolipomas of the spinal canal are extremely uncommon benign neoplasms composed of mature lipomatous and angiomatous elements. A case of thoracic spinal extradural angiolipoma producing progressive spinal cord compression in a 54-year old housewife is presented and 74 previously reported cases in the world literature over a period spanning nearly one century from 1890 to the present are analysed. The 75 total cases (46 females and 29 males) ranged in age from 6 to 73 years (mean 42.7, SD 15.9; median 43). The angiolipomas were located in the extradural compartment in 72 patients and intradural compartment in 3; 14 of the extradural lesions infiltrated the surrounding bone (infiltrating subgroup). Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the fat-density lesions in all the cases that we studied. The findings indicate that spinal angiolipomas predominantly affect women. Their preponderance in peri- or postmenopausal women, and their fluctuating clinical course during the pregnancy support a role of hormonal influence on the development of the lesion. They often involve the thoracic region, and produce symptoms and signs of spinal compression and, in some cases, bone involvement. MRI is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of these lesions. Non-infiltrating angiolipomas can usually be removed easily through a laminectomy, but infiltrating angiolipoma can be only partially resected. However, outcome is not worse in the infiltrating than in the non-infiltrating lesions and appears to be relatively independent of the completeness of the surgical removal. Subtotal resection usually provides substantial symptomatic relief, because these lesions are slow growing and do not undergo malignant transformation. The results of this review show that angiolipomas of the spinal canal have a good prognosis after surgical removal, even if infiltrating.
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ranking = 11.144419600031
keywords = neoplasm
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8/258. breast carcinoma diverging to aberrant melanocytic differentiation: a case report with histopathologic and loss of heterozygosity analyses.

    A case of primary breast cancer showing differentiation to malignant melanoma is reported. To obtain insight into the clonal relationship between the two components of the tumor, polymerase chain reaction-based microsatellite analysis to detect loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arms 1p, 1q, 3q, 4q, 6q, 8p, 9p, 10q, 11q, 13q, 16q, 17p, 17q, and 18q with microdissected tissues of both components was performed in addition to histologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural techniques. The tumor consisted of a combination of carcinoma and melanoma with morphologic transition. Metastases in the lymph nodes and thoracic spinal bone marrow showed dual tissue structure. One of the metastatic lung tumors showed melanomatous tissue structure. The abundant pigment in the cells was positive for Fontana-Masson staining and bleached with potassium permanganate. The carcinoma component was positive for epithelial membrane antigen and CA19-9, but the melanoma component was negative. Conversely, the melanoma component was positive for HMB45 and vimentin, but the carcinoma component was negative. Electron microscopic analysis showed premelanosomes and melanosomes in the melanoma component. Microsatellite analysis showed the same genetic alterations with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arms 1p, 3q, 4q, 6q, 9p, 10q, 11q, 13q, 16q, 17p, and 17q in in situ, invasive, and metastatic foci. We concluded that the carcinoma and melanoma components had arisen from the same clone and that this breast carcinoma might have diverged to aberrant malignant melanoma through multiple genetic alterations in the early period of ductal carcinoma in situ.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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9/258. Giant cell tumor of the thoracic spine simulating mediastinal neoplasm.

    A case of giant cell tumor of the thoracic spine simulating mediastinal neoplasm was identified on plain films, CT scans, MR images, and with scintigraphy. CT showed a hypervascular soft-tissue mass with shell-like calcification in the right upper mediastinum. MR imaging showed a collapse of the T1 vertebral body and a mass extending to the mediastinum. The mass had a low signal on T1-weighted MR images and a predominantly high signal on T2-weighted images with heterogeneity. technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy showed intense uptake in both the T1 and marginal parts of the mediastinal mass. There was no accumulation of gallium-67 citrate, but 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed marked uptake. The variation in these imaging findings played an important role in the differential diagnosis of this uncommon mediastinal mass.
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ranking = 55.722098000154
keywords = neoplasm
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10/258. Osteolytic extra-axial sacral myxopapillary ependymoma.

    The authors report an unusual case of sacral osteolytic myxopapillary ependymoma treated with curettage and radiotherapy. There is no evidence of recurrence 8 years after treatment. A review of the literature is presented on sacral ependymomas presenting with an osteolytic radiographic appearance (24 cases in 18 reports). The differential diagnosis with other sacral neoplasms is discussed.
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ranking = 11.144419600031
keywords = neoplasm
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