Cases reported "Splenomegaly"

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1/133. Massive splenomegaly and Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis in a patient with gaucher disease.

    PURPOSE: gaucher disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection who has unexplained or disproportionate splenomegaly. patients AND methods: A previously asymptomatic adolescent with EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis and massive splenomegaly is described. He was found to have gaucher disease on bone marrow biopsy, which was performed to exclude a hematologic malignancy. The diagnosis was confirmed by assay of beta-glucosidase enzyme activity. RESULTS: Regression of splenomegaly and improving hematologic indices. CONCLUSION: patients with infectious mononucleosis and disproportionate organomegaly should be investigated to exclude a hematologic malignancy or an underlying storage disorder such as gaucher disease.
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2/133. Encephalopathy associated with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following rotavirus infection.

    A 2-year-old Japanese boy with a haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) associated encephalopathy which developed after rotavirus infection is described. The neurological symptoms consisted of coma, seizures and spastic quadriplegia. On therapy with steroids, etoposide and cyclosporin A, the patient recovered without any neurological deficits. The interferon-gamma levels in serum and CSF were elevated at onset of the disease but had returned to normal at the time of clinical remission. brain MRI revealed diffuse white matter abnormalities and parenchymal volume loss. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate in the abnormal lesions observed on MRI, indicating that macrophages not exhibiting aerobic metabolism had infiltrated the CNS. At the time of clinical remission, the white matter abnormalities and brain lactate had disappeared. These findings suggested that the neurological symptoms resulted from the overproduction of cytokines by activated T-cells and macrophages. The pathophysiology of a HLH associated encephalopathy was considered to be a local immune response within the CNS, because interferon-gamma can induce the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens on glial cells in the CNS. CONCLUSION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated encephalopathy should be considered early in the differential diagnosis of cases with acute onset neuropathy.
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3/133. Haemophagocytosis in early congenital syphilis.

    A previously healthy male infant developed hepatosplenomegaly, severe anaemia and thrombocytopenia 5 weeks after birth. Marked haemophagocytosis was present in the bone marrow. A typical maculopapular rash suggested early congenital syphilis. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology and by the presence of untreated syphilis in both parents. CONCLUSION: syphilis needs to be excluded in infants suspected of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
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4/133. Refractory congenital ascites as a manifestation of neonatal sialidosis: clinical, biochemical and morphological studies in a newborn Syrian male infant.

    A Syrian newborn with coarse facies, hepato-splenomegaly, and refractory ascites is reported. Examination of the ascitic fluid showed vacuolated lymphocytes and thin-layer chromatography of urinary oligosaccharides revealed an abnormal pattern indicative of sialidosis. Despite intensive care, the baby died of respiratory insufficiency 28 days after birth. In cultured skin fibroblasts an increase of the incorporation of [14C]methylamine pointed to excessive lysosomal storage and the demonstration of an isolated deficiency of alpha-N-acetylneuraminidase (sialidase) led to the diagnosis of a sialidosis. At postmortem examination, foam cells were found mostly in bone marrow, liver, and brain. To date very few cases of neonatal sialidosis have been reported, and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first child with neonatal sialidosis from syria and the first case of neonatal sialidosis studied by the [14C]methylamine incorporation assay.
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5/133. Altered erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis in hemoglobin m Akita (M Hyde Park beta92 His replaced by Tyr) disease.

    Hb M Akita disease is a cyanotic hemoglobinopathy found in Akita Prefecture, japan. The abnormal hemoglobin was found to be the same as Hb M Hyde Park (beta92 His replaced by Tyr) by chemical analysis in 1967. In this disease signs of accelerated hemolysis (serum bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dl; splenomegaly, 2 finger breadths; Hb, 10.7 g/dl; reticulocyte index, 2.7) were noted, but the causes of its slight anemia were revealed to be fairly complex by ferrokinetic study, RBC life-span measurement, and 99mTc myeloscintigram. The anemia in this disease is caused not only by shortened erythrocyte survival (T 1/2 = 11.5 days by 51Cr-tagging method) and sequestration of red cells in the spleen (spleen: liver ratio = 2.5 approximately 3.0 by 51Cr-surface counting), but also by slow supply of erythrocytes to the peripheral blood from the bone marrow, presumably, related to the existence of unstable Hb M Akita and its derivative (Hb Akita) in the erythroid cells. Both Carrell's isopropanol test and Heinz body formation test were positive. In spite of maximally increased total erythropoiesis (8 times as high as the normal level; M:E ratio = 0.22:1.0), supply of red cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood was significantly decreased. The distribution of hematopoietic sites throughout the body was reasonably uniform.
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6/133. Hepatosplenomegalic lipidosis: what unless Gaucher? adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) with anemia, mesenteric lipodystrophy, increased plasma chitotriosidase activity and a homozygous lysosomal acid lipase -1 exon 8 splice junction mutation.

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted for hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. Bone marrow cytology showed "sea-blue histiocytes", vacuolated macrophages and plasma cells. As primary liver disease, malignancy or hematologic disorders were excluded, and plasma chitotriosidase activity was increased 27-fold over control, the presence of a lysosomal storage disease was suspected. Biochemical analysis of skin fibroblasts revealed normal glucocerebrosidase and sphingomyelinase activity, but lipid analysis showed a more than 15-fold accumulation of cholesterol esters within the cells. The activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in fibroblast homogenates was decreased to 12% of control subjects. Mutational analysis of the patient's blood showed the homozygous G-->A mutation at position -1 of the exon 8 splice donor site (E8SJM-allele) known for adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD); the polymorphic background was that of the complex haplotype -6Thr, 2Gly, 894 G-->A. Based on clinical, laboratory, cytological and and biochemical findings, CESD can clearly be separated from other more frequent inherited lysosomal storage diseases, e.g. atypical forms of gaucher disease.
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7/133. Identification of new Fas mutations in a patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and eosinophilia.

    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare, newly recognized, chronic lymphoproliferative disorder in children and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, autoimmune phenomena and expansion of double-negative (DN) T lymphocytes (TCR alpha beta , CD4-, CD8-). Defective lymphocyte apoptosis caused by mutations of the Fas (CD95) gene has been linked in the pathogenesis of ALPS, as binding of Fas-ligand to Fas can trigger apoptosis. Of the ALPS cases reported to date, point mutations, frameshifts and silent mutations in Fas all have been identified. We report two new point mutations in Fas in a child with ALPS and eosinophilia; studies on other family members established the pattern of inheritance for these mutations. Flow cytometric analysis of blood and tissues (spleen, lymph node, bone marrow) revealed abnormally expanded populations of DN T lymphocytes. Furthermore, activated lymphocytes and IFN gamma-activated eosinophils were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Eosinophil resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis has not been previously described in ALPS. Sequencing of Fas revealed two separate mutations not previously reported. One mutation, a C to T change at base 836, was a silent mutation inherited from the mother, while the second mutation, a C to A change at base 916, caused a non-conservative amino acid substitution in the death domain of Fas, changing a threonine to a lysine. This mutation is associated with a predicted change in the structure of a part of the death domain from a beta-pleated sheet to an alpha-helix. We speculate that the mutation in the death domain prevents the interaction of Fas with intracellular mediators of apoptosis and is responsible for the autoimmune manifestations of ALPS and the abnormal lymphocytosis and eosinophilia in this patient.
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8/133. Improvement of quality of life after splenectomy in an HTLV-I carrier with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.

    A 34-year-old woman of HTLV-I carrier with T-PLL, whose quality of life improved and survival was prolonged after splenectomy, is described. The patient had marked splenomegaly, generalized lymphadenopathy and marked proliferation of abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood with an irregular nucleus, deeply basophilic cytoplasm and a single prominent nucleolus, which were positive for CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD4 and CD8. Although the patient had serum antibody against HTLV-I, HTLV-I proviral dna integration was not detected. She was diagnosed as an HTLV-I carrier with T-PLL and received combination chemotherapy and 15.1 Gy splenic irradiation. However, the generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly did not improve. The patient underwent splenectomy to palliate abdominal distension and hypersplenism. After the operation, her symptoms improved dramatically and within a week her hemoglobin concentration and platelet count normalized. She was discharged from hospital two weeks after the splenectomy, however 11 months later, she relapsed and despite treatment with chemotherapy and alpha-interferon, she died two months after the second admission. autopsy findings revealed that PLL cells had invaded the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, lungs, kidneys, uterus, ovaries and adrenal glands.
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9/133. Hepatosplenic B-cell lymphoma associated with hemophagocytic syndrome: a case report.

    While T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) associated with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) has been frequently observed, B-cell NHL associated with HPS has been rarely reported. We report a case of hepatosplenic B-cell lymphoma associated with HPS in a 41-year-old woman who presented with fever of unknown origin. An abdominal CT scan revealed splenomegaly with focal splenic infarction. splenectomy and a liver wedge biopsy showed sinusoidal-pattern infiltration of medium to large tumor cells with positive reaction to a B-lymphocyte marker. Findings on bone marrow examination showed proliferation of histiocytes with avid hemophagocytosis.
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10/133. Intrasinusoidal bone marrow infiltration revealing intravascular lymphomatosis.

    Intravascular lymphoma is a rare, often fatal disease characterized by a widespread intravascular proliferation of neoplastic lymphoid cells. Dermatological and bizarre neurological manifestations usually predominate. We report a case of intravascular lymphomatosis with an exceptional clinical presentation showing splenomegaly combined with early bone marrow involvement. The diagnosis was made on bone marrow biopsy examination using both immunohistochemistry and molecular biology analysis. We stress the histopathological features of bone marrow involvement by intravascular lymphoma which allow the prompt recognition of this disease. Early systemic chemotherapy, which represents the only chance of remission in such an aggressive disease, can then be initiated.
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