Cases reported "Splenomegaly"

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1/49. Identification of new Fas mutations in a patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and eosinophilia.

    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare, newly recognized, chronic lymphoproliferative disorder in children and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, autoimmune phenomena and expansion of double-negative (DN) T lymphocytes (TCR alpha beta , CD4-, CD8-). Defective lymphocyte apoptosis caused by mutations of the Fas (CD95) gene has been linked in the pathogenesis of ALPS, as binding of Fas-ligand to Fas can trigger apoptosis. Of the ALPS cases reported to date, point mutations, frameshifts and silent mutations in Fas all have been identified. We report two new point mutations in Fas in a child with ALPS and eosinophilia; studies on other family members established the pattern of inheritance for these mutations. Flow cytometric analysis of blood and tissues (spleen, lymph node, bone marrow) revealed abnormally expanded populations of DN T lymphocytes. Furthermore, activated lymphocytes and IFN gamma-activated eosinophils were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Eosinophil resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis has not been previously described in ALPS. Sequencing of Fas revealed two separate mutations not previously reported. One mutation, a C to T change at base 836, was a silent mutation inherited from the mother, while the second mutation, a C to A change at base 916, caused a non-conservative amino acid substitution in the death domain of Fas, changing a threonine to a lysine. This mutation is associated with a predicted change in the structure of a part of the death domain from a beta-pleated sheet to an alpha-helix. We speculate that the mutation in the death domain prevents the interaction of Fas with intracellular mediators of apoptosis and is responsible for the autoimmune manifestations of ALPS and the abnormal lymphocytosis and eosinophilia in this patient.
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2/49. splenectomy may improve the glomerulopathy of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    Many patients with type II mixed cryoglobulinemia have been shown to be infected with hapatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, interferon-alfa has become the first choice of treatment for patients with HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia. However, the disease often relapses after the discontinuation of interferon therapy. The long-term effect of interferon therapy is controversial. Therefore, a more effective therapy needs to be developed. A 62-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for the examination of abnormal liver function tests, severe edema, and purpura in her lower extremities. Glomerulopathy secondary to HCV-related cryoglobulinemia was suspected. Her serum creatinine was increased to 2.1 mg/dL. Interferon therapy was considered initially. However, because of pancytopenia caused by liver cirrhosis and splenomegaly, splenectomy was performed in February 1997, before the start of interferon therapy. Renal biopsy specimen taken at the time of the splenectomy showed typical cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis. Gradually, after surgery, the patient's thrombocytopenia and anemia improved, her proteinuria and hematuria were decreased, her cryocrit dropped from 15% to 5%, the Ccr increased from 21.1 mL/min to 48.8 mL/min, and the purpura in her lower extremities disappeared. A repeat renal biopsy performed in May 1998 showed marked histological improvement. splenectomy is not widely accepted as a treatment for cryoglobulinemia. Our case suggests the possibility that the monoclonal-IgM component of the type II cryoglobulin may be formed in the spleen. In conclusion, splenectomy may be an effective therapy for cryoglobulinemia in patients with HCV-positive liver cirrhosis and pancytopenia secondary to splenomegaly.
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3/49. Improvement of splenomegaly and pancytopenia by enzyme replacement therapy against type 1 gaucher disease: a report of sibling cases.

    gaucher disease is a genetic lipid storage disease and represents a potentially serious health problem. It arises from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase activity with secondary accumulation of large quantities of glucocerebroside. Symptoms are usually multisystemic, often debilitating or disabling, and sometimes disfiguring, and they can lead to death. We report objective clinical response's to repeated infusion of human placental and recombinant glucocerebrosidase in 2 patients with type 1 gaucher disease and increased hemoglobin levels and platelet counts. Splenic volume decreased during the period of enzyme administration. enzyme replacement therapy has improved the treatment of type 1 gaucher disease by safely and effectively arresting, decreasing, or normalizing many of its major signs and symptoms. Consideration by physicians must be given to gaucher disease, and appropriate treatments must be given when confronted with cryptogenic pancytopenia or hepatosplenomegaly.
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4/49. Hemophagocytic syndrome.

    This case report is about an elderly man who presented with a long-standing history of high-grade fever and weight loss. He initially had only hepatosplenomegaly, but then developed jaundice. He also had pancytopenia and raised liver enzymes. His septic screen was negative, but he had a positive Monospot test and immunoglobulin g for Epstein-Barr virus. The liver biopsy showed sinusoidal phagocytosis and the subsequent bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed significant hemophagocytosis, hence Hemophagocytic syndrome was diagnosed. The fever was refractory to antibiotic and anti-tuberculosis therapy, but it responded only partially to steroids. Full response was only noticed following anti-viral treatment in the form of intravenous ganciclovir. The patient's general condition, liver enzymes, bilirubin, hematological parameters and even the weight returned back to their normal range 2 weeks after ganciclovir therapy. Cessation of this drug resulted in relapse of his symptoms and oral antivirals did not help. splenectomy, steroid pulse therapy and immunosuppressive treatment were only partially helpful. Reintroduction of ganciclovir did help for a short period. We conclude that our patient had virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome most likely related to Epstein-Barr virus infection, which was then confirmed by the splenic biopsy, and that ganciclovir can be of great help in eradicating the virus and treating the disease, provided that it is given for a long enough period.
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5/49. ehrlichiosis infection in a 5-year-old boy with neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly.

    ehrlichiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with recent fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and history of tick exposure. We present a previously healthy 5-year-old boy who was referred to the hematology-Oncology Clinic to consider a bone marrow etiologic process after his pediatrician discovered progressive neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly accompanied by 2 days of fever. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were nonrevealing. Because of the history of a recent tick bite, a diagnosis of ehrlichiosis infection was considered and ultimately confirmed by IgG-specific serum testing. The patient's fever was treated symptomatically with acetaminophen, and symptoms resolved on their own without intervention. ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infection that occurs throughout the spring and summer, often causing findings that mimic a malignancy or serious hematologic disorder. The diagnosis should be considered in any person living in tick-infested areas and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or serum antibody titers. Treatment with doxycycline can lead to rapid clinical improvement if the diagnosis is made early.
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6/49. Hemophagocytosis and granulomas in the bone marrow of a child with down syndrome.

    Persistent fever with pancytopenia and hepatomegaly with negative blood cultures and no obvious focus of infection in a child with down syndrome should arouse a suspicion of leukemia. bone marrow examination and clot biopsy from one such patient revealed hemophagocytosis and granulomas, with serologic evidence of recent Epstein-Barr virus infection. Bone marrow granulomas are not a feature of Epstein-Barr infection. Later, bone marrow culture and repeat blood culture grew salmonella typhi. Thus, in a febrile child, when performing a bone marrow aspirate, a clot biopsy and culture for infectious etiology may be helpful, even when leukemia is strongly suspected.
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7/49. epiglottis involvement in a visceral leishmaniasis.

    The visceral form of leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum is frequently observed in Mediterranean countries, however otorhinolaryngeal involvement has only rarely been reported in the literature. We report here the case of a 23-year-old cameroon man, resident in france since 1991, and presenting with recurrent epistaxis and an epiglottis tumoral lesion. The visceral form of leishmaniasis with hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia was diagnosed. culture of the epiglottal lesion revealed L. infantum. Serological test for human immunodeficiency virus was negative and the patient was not on immunosuppressive drugs. Dramatic improvement was observed with antimony.
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8/49. A rare syndrome in the differential diagnosis of hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia: report of identical twins with Griscelli disease.

    White, identical twin boys aged 3 months were referred to our centre with persisting fever, mouth ulcers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia and failure to thrive. The parents were first cousins and there was a history of a sibling with similar manifestations who had died. The infants had silvery-grey hair and pigment clumps on the hair shafts, and skin biopsy showed accumulation of melanocytes on melanosomes. Bone marrow revealed hypercellularity and haemophagocytosis. HLH-94 chemotherapy (initial therapy with daily dexamethasone and etoposide, maintenance with dexamethasone pulses, etoposide and cyclosporin A) was started. Though partial haematological remission was achieved, one of the boys died on the 34th day following aspiration pneumonia. No pathogen could be identified. The second boy responded to therapy but had a haematological relapse and died 68 days after first being admitted. Genetic study revealed a 5 bp deletion in the RAB27A gene (510 del AAGCC in exon 5). Transient haematological remission can be achieved with chemotherapy but allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy in Griscelli disease, as in other familial haemophagocytic syndromes. Identification of the mutation also provides an opportunity for prenatal diagnosis.
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9/49. Portal hypertension in williams syndrome: report of two patients.

    Williams or Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a developmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations characterized by distinctive facial features, mental disability with unique cognitive and personality profiles, vascular stenoses, growth retardation, and occasional infantile hypercalcemia, caused by haploinsufficiency for genes deleted in chromosome band 7q11.23. However, with the exception of arterial stenoses caused by haploinsufficiency for the elastin gene (ELN), no specific implication of any other gene in the phenotype has been established. We present two patients with portal hypertension leading to splenomegaly and pancytopenia carrying the common 1.5 Mb WBS deletion. We propose this is an additional severe vascular complication of ELN deficiency and discuss the specific characteristics of the portal venous tract that could explain the impact of ELN deficiency in that venous territory. This complication is potentially lethal and should thus be considered in any patient with WBS and splenomegaly.
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10/49. Hepatosplenic gamma delta T-cell lymphoma with leukemic phase successfully treated with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine.

    An unusual case of hepatosplenic gamma delta T-cell lymphoma with leukemic phase in a 39-year-old woman is reported. At the first presentation she had splenomegaly and pancytopenia diagnosed as hypersplenia treated by splenectomy. Subsequently, she developed hepatomegaly and progressive neoplastic lymphocytosis. The bone marrow showed a sinusoidal infiltrate of medium-sized cells. Flowcytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated expression of CD3, CD7, CD16, CD56 antigens and T-cell receptor gamma delta. A monoclonal TCR gamma- and beta-chain gene rearrangement were detected by polymerase chain reaction. The patient was treated by traditional chemotherapy and alpha-interferon, unsuccessfully. Therefore, 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine was introduced resulting in a complete remission for 6 months. The reported case demonstrates the usefulness of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine in treatment of hepatosplenic gamma delta T-cell lymphoma.
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