Cases reported "Spondylolisthesis"

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1/43. Transoral fusion with internal fixation in a displaced hangman's fracture.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case is reported in which late displacement of a "hangman's fracture" was managed by transoral C2-C3 fusion by using bicortical iliac crest graft and a titanium cervical locking plate. OBJECTIVES: To review the management of unstable fractures of the axis and to study other reports of transoral instrumentation of the cervical spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Undisplaced fractures of the axis are considered to be stable injuries. Although late displacement is unusual, it can lead to fracture nonunion with persisting instability and spinal cord dysfunction. In this situation, an anterior fusion of the second and third cervical vertebrae is preferred to a posterior fusion from the atlas to the third cervical vertebra, which would abolish lateral rotation between C1 and C2. methods: The literature on hangman's fractures was reviewed. Clinical and radiographic details of a case of C2 instability were recorded, and the particular problems posed by late displacement were considered. RESULTS: There are no other reports of transoral instrumentation of the cervical spine. A sound fusion of C2-C3 was obtained without infection or other complications. Good neck movement returned by 6 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Undisplaced fractures of the axis are not always stable. The transoral route allows good access for stabilization of displaced hangman's fractures. In special circumstances, a locking plate may prove useful in securing the bone graft. The cervical spine locking plate can be inserted transorally with no complications and by using standard instrumentation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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2/43. Traumatic L5-S1 spondylolisthesis: report of three cases and a review of the literature.

    The literature reports that traumatic spondylolisthesis of L5 is an uncommon lesion. The authors report their experience of three cases of this particular fracture-dislocation of the lumbosacral spine. They stress the importance of certain radiographic signs in the diagnosis: namely, the presence of unilateral multiple fracture of the transverse lumbar apophysis. As far as the treatment is concerned, they state the need for an open reduction and an internal segmental fixation by posterior approach. A preoperative MRI study appears mandatory in order to evaluate the integrity of the L5-S1 disc. In the event of a traumatic disruption of the disc, they state the importance of posterior interbody fusion by means of a strut graft carved from the ilium or, in case of iliac wing fracture (which is not uncommon in these patients), by means of interbody cages.
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ranking = 0.27272727272727
keywords = fracture
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3/43. Imaging features of cervical spondylolysis--with emphasis on MR appearances.

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of cervical spondylolysis, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances. MATERIALS AND methods: The clinical and imaging features (plain radiographic, CT and MRI) of three patients with cervical spondylolysis were reviewed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Three cases of C6 cervical spondylolysis have been described and the world literature reviewed. The plain radiographic features in two cases with bilateral defects showed spondylolisthesis and abnormalities of the pars and adjacent facet joints. CT demonstrated well corticated defects and associated spina bifida occulta in all cases. The defects were seen in only one case on MRI but in all cases, absence of the spinous process of C6 was noted on sagittal sequences due to the spina bifida occulta. Cervical spondylolysis is an uncommon condition that must be distinguished from an acute fracture and diagnosed radiologically to prevent mismanagement. Although the defect may be difficult to identify on MRI, absence of the spinous process on sagittal sequences should raise the suspicion of the abnormality.
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ranking = 0.090909090909091
keywords = fracture
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4/43. Iatrogenic spondylolysis leading to contralateral pedicular stress fracture and unstable spondylolisthesis: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of iatrogenic spondylolysis as a complication of microdiscectomy leading to contralateral pedicular stress fracture and unstable spondylolisthesis. OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of this condition by presenting a case history and roentgenographic findings of a patient that differ from those already reported and to propose an effective method of surgical management. methods: A 67-year-old woman with no history of spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis underwent an L4-L5 microdiscectomy for a left herniated nucleus pulposus 1 year before the current consultation. For the preceding 8 months, she had been experiencing low back and bilateral leg pain. Imaging studies revealed a left L4 spondylolytic defect and a right L4 pedicular stress fracture with an unstable Grade I spondylolisthesis. RESULTS: The patient was treated with posterior spinal fusion, which resulted in complete resolution of her clinical and neurologic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Iatrogenic spondylolysis after microdiscectomy is an uncommon entity. However, it can lead to contralateral pedicular stress fracture and spondylolisthesis, and thus can be a source of persistent back pain after disc surgery. Surgeons caring for these patients should be aware of this potential complication.
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ranking = 0.76153799128355
keywords = fracture, stress fracture
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5/43. The musculoskeletal manifestations of Werner's syndrome.

    Werner's syndrome is a rare condition usually presenting as premature ageing in adults. Over a period of 30 years we have followed two siblings with extensive musculoskeletal manifestations including a soft-tissue tumour, insufficiency fractures, nonunion and tendonitis, with associated problems of management. The literature is reviewed.
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ranking = 0.090909090909091
keywords = fracture
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6/43. Salvage reconstruction with vascularized fibular strut graft fusion using posterior approach in the treatment of severe spondylolisthesis.

    STUDY DESIGN: One case is reported in which a failed anterior fusion for Grade 4 spondylolisthesis was treated with a vascularized fibular strut graft using a posterior approach. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the applicability of this technique for salvage cases or patients with systemic conditions that may decrease the success of more standard techniques. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical stabilization of spondylolisthesis through posterior approach with a fibular strut graft has been previously described. A vascularized strut graft can be used in the treatment of spondylolisthesis and may have applicability in those patients with underlying disease that may impair the use of more standard techniques or in salvage reconstruction. methods: With the patient under general anesthesia, through a posterior approach S1 and L4 were decompressed. The fibula with its vascularity intact was harvested and anastomosed with the superior gluteal artery and vein. The fibular strut was placed into the space formed by reaming between L5 and S1. Ilial autograft was used to augment the posterior fusion. After the procedure the patient was placed in a hip spica cast. RESULTS: At the 2-year follow-up the patient has incorporation of the graft, with no evidence of fracture and no significant progression of anterior slip. CONCLUSION: A vascularized fibular strut graft is a feasible alternative in the treatment of severe spondylolisthesis. No complications were encountered in the involved patient. Future application may include salvage reconstruction of failed arthrodesis or in individuals with systemic conditions that may impair graft incorporation using more standard techniques.
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ranking = 0.090909090909091
keywords = fracture
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7/43. Traumatic lumbosacral dislocation: case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of a bilateral lumbosacral dislocation without a fracture is presented. OBJECTIVE: To report the diagnosis and treatment of a traumatic lumbosacral dislocation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Lumbosacral dislocations without fractures are rare injuries, with only four cases reported in literature. The recommended treatment consists of an anterior lumbar interbody fusion after posterior reduction with pedicle screw instrumentation. methods: The 1-year follow-up evaluation of a 17-year-old male with a traumatic lumbosacral dislocation, diagnosed with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and treated with a posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure combined with a posterolateral fusion is reported. RESULTS: At 1 year after surgery the patient is asymptomatic and has resumed his heavy manual work. Radiologic evidence of interbody fusion is present. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbosacral dislocations are rare injuries. The authors demonstrate the feasibility of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure in combination with posterolateral instrumentation and fusion.
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ranking = 0.18181818181818
keywords = fracture
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8/43. Pedicular stress fracture in lumbar spine.

    The purpose of this article is to report two cases of pedicular stress fracture of the lumbar spine, which is an uncommon cause of low back and leg pain. The relevant literature is reviewed and features of the cases that differ from those already reported are highlighted. One of our cases of pediculolysis is the first in the literature for that is caused by rotational instability induced by laminectomy. The remodeling of the fractured pedicle was striking when compared with its normal counterpart. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a pediculolysis with T2-weighted imaging findings. In addition, we report the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a healed pediculolysis that has not been reported previously.
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ranking = 0.63486479896877
keywords = fracture, stress fracture
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9/43. Hangman's fracture caused by suspected child abuse. A case report.

    This report highlights the difficulties associated with diagnosing cervical spine injuries in children especially as the history and mechanism of injury may often be unclear and the normal variations in roentgenographic appearance may be confusing. As far as we are aware this is only the second case of traumatic Hangman's fracture in a child under the age of 3 years and the only case where there is a strong probability of child abuse. A female child aged 23 months was admitted with a 5-day history of irritability and general malaise. Her father reported noticing that she was reluctant to move her neck. He denied any possibility of trauma. On admission she had neck stiffness with a temperature of 37 degrees C and supported her neck with her hands. There was evidence of otitis media of her right ear. Her physical examination was otherwise normal. A full blood count and lumbar puncture were within normal limits. Cervical spine x rays suggested a Hangman's fracture of C2 with slight anterior subluxation of C2 on C3 and a kyphus at that level. Computerized tomography demonstrated no significant canal encroachment. An isotope bone scan was non-diagnostic. She was treated in a moulded cervical collar with neck held in slight extension. Her symptoms resolved and further radiographs showed improved alignment. Repeat CT scans seven weeks post admission showed callus formation. At follow-up at one year she remains asymptomatic. Hangman's fracture is very rare in children under 3 years and the considerable normal variations further complicate diagnosis. Swischuk described the posterior cervical line connecting the spinous process of C1-C3 vertebrae on the lateral projection to differentiate a true fracture dislocation from physiological anterior displacement. A detailed history, roentgenograms, bone scans, CT scans and MRI scans are often required for accurate diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.72727272727273
keywords = fracture
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10/43. Early sacral stress fracture after reduction of spondylolisthesis and lumbosacral fixation: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Early sacral fracture is an extremely rare complication of instrumented lumbosacral fusion seen in older, osteopenic women. Previous reports have attributed the problem to the use of multisegmental (three or more levels) fixation, with the transfer of stress forces from rigid spinal implants to the sacrum. We report the only case, to the best of our knowledge, of early sacral fracture after a two-level lumbosacral fusion and the only case of early sacral fracture after reduction of spondylolisthesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A patient presented with a sudden recurrence of low back and buttock pain a few days after lumbosacral decompression, reduction of L5-S1 Grade II spondylolisthesis, and instrumented L5-S1 fusion, including posterior lumbar interbody fusion. A transverse sacral fracture was found on plain x-rays 4 weeks later. INTERVENTION: Symptoms improved with brace therapy and medical treatment for osteoporosis. CONCLUSION: Early sacral fracture is a rare cause of pain after instrumented lumbosacral fusion. Although the transfer of loads from rigid spinal implants to adjacent segments is particularly problematic for multisegmental fusions, patients with short-segment constructs may also be affected. Active reduction of spondylolisthesis may provide additional adjacent segment stress contributing to this complication.
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ranking = 0.8897100209932
keywords = fracture, stress fracture
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