Cases reported "Spondylolisthesis"

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1/15. Spontaneous fusion of isthmic spondylolisthesis after discitis: a case report.

    This is the first case report of a child with isthmic spondylolisthesis and discitis who had spontaneous fusion develop at an unstable level with relief of symptoms after nonoperative treatment. Although the blood culture was negative, the 14-year-old boy with Grade III isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5 was diagnosed with discitis at the L5-S1 level, based on clinical findings, elevated c-reactive protein, plain radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging scans. The patient was treated with antibiotics for 19 weeks and bed rest for 4 weeks followed by immobilization in a hip spica cast for 8 weeks and a thoracolumbosacral orthosis for an additional 12 weeks. The lumbar back pain improved and there was a decrease in c-reactive protein to the normal range 3 weeks after onset. Forty months from onset, the patient was free from lumbar back or leg pain and his clinical neurologic examination was normal. Plain radiographs showed spontaneous fusion between L5 and the sacrum. This suggests that nonoperative treatment is acceptable even if discitis occurs at an unstable level.
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2/15. Early sacral stress fracture after reduction of spondylolisthesis and lumbosacral fixation: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Early sacral fracture is an extremely rare complication of instrumented lumbosacral fusion seen in older, osteopenic women. Previous reports have attributed the problem to the use of multisegmental (three or more levels) fixation, with the transfer of stress forces from rigid spinal implants to the sacrum. We report the only case, to the best of our knowledge, of early sacral fracture after a two-level lumbosacral fusion and the only case of early sacral fracture after reduction of spondylolisthesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A patient presented with a sudden recurrence of low back and buttock pain a few days after lumbosacral decompression, reduction of L5-S1 Grade II spondylolisthesis, and instrumented L5-S1 fusion, including posterior lumbar interbody fusion. A transverse sacral fracture was found on plain x-rays 4 weeks later. INTERVENTION: Symptoms improved with brace therapy and medical treatment for osteoporosis. CONCLUSION: Early sacral fracture is a rare cause of pain after instrumented lumbosacral fusion. Although the transfer of loads from rigid spinal implants to adjacent segments is particularly problematic for multisegmental fusions, patients with short-segment constructs may also be affected. Active reduction of spondylolisthesis may provide additional adjacent segment stress contributing to this complication.
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3/15. Remodelling of the sacrum in high-grade spondylolisthesis: a report of two cases.

    Two young patients are described, who were operated on for high-grade spondylolisthesis. A good posterolateral fusion was achieved, without decompression and without reduction. The clinical course was favourable, the tight hamstring syndrome resolved. Disappearance of the posterior-superior part of the sacrum and of the posterior part of the L5-S1 disc was observed on comparing pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images. This resulted in normalisation of the width of the spinal canal. Around the L5 nerve roots in the L5-S1 foramina some fat reappeared. These anatomical changes on MRI could play a role in the disappearance of clinical symptoms.
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4/15. Spontaneously stabilized severe dysplastic spondylolisthesis without operation: long-term follow-up of a preteenage patient.

    Surgical management is the accepted treatment choice for grade III or IV spondylolisthesis, and many satisfactory clinical and radiologic follow-up results have been reported. Very little, however, has been written about long-term results in preteenage patients in whom dysplastic spondylolisthesis has been treated nonoperatively, especially in those who have > or =50% displacement of the fifth lumbar vertebra on the sacrum. We report an unusual case of spontaneous stabilization of severe dysplastic spondylolisthesis in an 8-year-old girl who presented with grade III spondylolisthesis of L5-S1 and was followed up for >14 years in the absence of surgical intervention. On presentation, she complained of a restriction in forward bending and tightness of hamstrings, but she was undisturbed in her daily activities. Initial radiographs showed severe dysplastic spondylolisthesis; however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at age 9 years showed that the amount of listhesis was much less than that seen in the initial radiograph. Routine radiographic follow-ups were chosen over early operative measures until she became a teenager. There was no change in the slip, and unusually a gradual ossification of the cartilaginous promontory of the S1 and the posterior lip of the L5 was observed. At 22 years old, the patient is asymptomatic and not conscious of her cosmetic appearance. Surgical treatment has generally been indicated for patients with grade III or IV spondylolisthesis, because slippage progression has been noted in most reported cases. However, MRI may be a tool for predicting which dysplastic spondylolisthesis cases are more likely to progress and therefore circumvent surgical intervention, while maintaining an excellent outcome.
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5/15. Utilization of iliac screws and structural interbody grafting for revision spondylolisthesis surgery.

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case analysis and presentation. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to discuss the spectrum of failed spondylolisthesis cases for which either anterior column support or iliac screw fixation or both are useful in salvaging failed spondylolisthesis surgeries. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Past studies and experience have suggested that there is a relatively high rate of sacral screw failure both in long constructs to the sacrum in the adult population and also with treatment of both high-grade and adult spondylolisthesis at L5-S1. It has been noted that anterior column support at L5-S1 and additional fixation points in the sacropelvic unit provide some protection to the sacral screws. methods: This article details the author's personal and institutional experience with sacropelvic fixation and anterior column support at L5-S1 to salvage failed spondylolisthesis cases. RESULTS: To some extent, each case needs to be individualized. It is not always necessary to provide both anterior column support at L5-S1 and protection of the sacral screws with iliac screws. However, in the most complex problems using both seems to provide the greatest chance for an acceptable radiographic and clinical outcome. Most biomechanical studies have supported the use of anterior column support and iliac fixation to protect sacral screws, suggesting, of the two, that the iliac screws are more valuable. CONCLUSIONS: For many of these cases of both high-grade dysplastic spondylolisthesis and low-grade adult isthmic spondylolisthesis, a reasonable combination of anterior column support and/or iliac screw fixation may be logical to reduce the incidence of failure and need for revision. The biggest concern with using iliac screw fixation is that these screws are prominent in a percentage of patients and the ultimate impact on the sacroiliac joint is not fully investigated. However, at our institution with 5- to 10-year follow-up, the impact on the sacroiliac joint has been minimal.
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6/15. High-grade dysplastic spondylolisthesis and spondyloptosis: report of three cases with surgical treatment and review of the literature.

    High-grade dysplastic spondylolisthesis is extremely rare and always involves the L5-S1 level. It is attributed to congenital dysplasia of the superior articular process of the sacrum. It can remain asymptomatic for a long time and can progress to a more severe grade of olisthesis and spondyloptosis. Surgical treatment has varied from posterior-only in situ fusion to anterior and posterior fusion with complete reduction. Three cases of symptomatic high-grade (4th and 5th grade) dysplastic spondylolisthesis treated surgically with reduction and fusion are presented. Interbody fusion at the level of olisthesis is crucial.
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7/15. Cotrel-Dubousset pedicle screw system for various spinal disorders. Merits and problems.

    Eighty-five consecutive patients with various spinal disorders who underwent surgery using the Cotrel-Dubousset pedicle screw system at Kantoh Rosai Hospital between August 1986 and November 1989 were studied. The group included 52 men and 33 women, ranging in age from 19 to 76 years, with an average age of 53 years. The postoperative follow-up period was from 15 to 54 months, with an average of 33 months. The diagnoses were lumbar degenerative disorders in 69 cases (spondylolisthesis in 32, lumbar degenerative spinal canal stenosis without spondylolisthesis in 21, and "unstable lumbar spine" in 16), spinal trauma in 9, spinal deformities in 5 (scoliosis in 3 and kyphosis in 2), and tumor in 2 (1 spinal cord tumor and 1 vertebral tumor). The Cotrel-Dubousset pedicle screw system proved not only to be useful in fixing an unstable spine from the lower thoracic vertebra to the sacrum, as is the case with the other pedicle screw systems, but also to have great advantages for use in various spinal disorders, including reduction of slipped vertebra, correction of spinal deformity combined with a hook system, and for anterior spinal instrumentation. Postoperative clinical results were good in most of the cases, but pseudarthrosis considerably affected the results in a few cases. Therefore, great care must be taken, both strategically and technically, to prevent pseudarthrosis.
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8/15. cauda equina syndrome after in situ arthrodesis for severe spondylolisthesis at the lumbosacral junction.

    Relative stretching of the cauda equina over the posterosuperior border of the sacrum can be found in all patients who have Grade-III or IV spondylolisthesis at the lumbosacral junction. We identified twelve patients, all less than eighteen years old, who had cauda equina syndrome after in situ arthrodesis for Grade-III or IV lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. In all twelve patients, posterolateral arthrodesis had been done bilaterally through a midline or paraspinal muscle-splitting approach. Nothing in the operative reports suggested that the cauda equina had been directly injured during any of the procedures. Five of the twelve patients eventually recovered completely. The remaining seven patients had a permanent residual neurological deficit, manifested by complete or partial inability to control the bowel and bladder. If dysfunction of the root of the sacral nerve is noted preoperatively in a patient who has lumbosacral spondylolisthesis, decompression of the cauda equina concomitant with the arthrodesis should be considered. An acute cauda equina syndrome that follows a seemingly uneventful in situ arthrodesis for spondylolisthesis is best treated by an immediate decompression that includes resection of the posterosuperior rim of the dome of the sacrum and the adjacent intervertebral disc. In addition, posterior insertion of instrumentation and reduction of the lumbosacral spondylolisthesis should be considered.
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9/15. Technique for achievement and maintenance of reduction for severe spondylolisthesis using spinous process traction wiring and external fixation of the pelvis.

    A technique is described for achievement and maintenance of reduction for severe spondylolisthesis in conjunction with reconstructive surgery. Spinous-process traction wires exert a posterior and cephalad force on the lumbar spine, while Hoffman pins anchored to the ilium rotate the sacrum in an anterior and caudad direction. Once maximum reduction is achieved, the patient is kept supine for 3 months with pins and traction wires incorporated in a plaster cast. At follow-up, two patients demonstrated excellent correction of slip angle and a solid fusion.
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keywords = sacrum
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10/15. Treatment of spondyloptosis by two stage L5 vertebrectomy and reduction of L4 onto S1.

    A new method of treatment of spondyloptosis is presented utilizing a staged approach. The first stage consists of a vertebral body resection of L5 along with the L4-5 and L5-S1 discs. The second stage procedure consists of removal of the loose posterior element, the articular processes, and pedicles of L5 and reduction of L4 onto the sacrum. The technique for the procedure is reviewed along with its results in two operated patients.
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