Cases reported "Staphylococcal Infections"

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1/23. Response of complicated methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus endocarditis to the addition of trovafloxacin.

    The newer fluoroquinolones have many properties such as safety, bioavailability, and tissue penetration that make them attractive in the therapy of complicated infections. Unfortunately, the rapid development of resistance by Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin has dampened interest in these agents for serious staphylococcal infections. A patient with right-sided methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endocarditis with a complicated clinical course received trovafloxacin in addition to vancomycin and rifampin. He was initially treated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin for serious MRSA infection, but because of complications, including septic central nervous system emboli, persistent fever, and leukocytosis, gentamicin was stopped and trovafloxacin begun. After this addition the patient improved and completely recovered. in vitro and animal model data show that many newer fluoroquinolones have excellent activity against S. aureus, including MRSA, and are also less likely to induce resistance. Animal models of endocarditis support their efficacy in serious staphylococcal infections.
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2/23. Staphylococcus sciuri: recommendation for simple identification.

    We report the isolation of Staphylococcus sciuri, primarily animal species, from samples taken from hospitalised patients. Considering that Staphylococcus sciuri often remains unrecognised in routine laboratory practice, we propose the criteria for simple identification of this bacterium.
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3/23. Neonatal myiasis.

    This case involves an orphan female neonate-abandoned in a dustbin in Poona, india-who was infected by the larval forms of the blowfly. The blowfly causing this infestation belonged to the family Calliphoridae and genus Calliphora. The fly of this genus is of importance in Indian veterinary science and is found abundantly around decaying matter in Poona. The larvae occurring in carrion, flesh, etc, usually infest open wounds of animals and rarely infest humans.
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keywords = animal
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4/23. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) associated with Staphylococcus spp. bacteremia, responsive to potassium arsenite 0.5% in a veterinary surgeon and his coworking wife, handling with CFS animal cases.

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in human patients remain a controversial and perplexing condition with emerging zoonotic aspects. Recent advances in human medicine seem to indicate a bacterial etiology and the condition has already been described in horses, dogs, cats and birds of prey in association with micrococci-like organisms in the blood. To evaluate the possibility of a chronic bacteremia, a veterinary surgeon (the author) and his coworking wife, both diagnosed with CFS and meeting the CDC working case definition, were submitted to rapid blood cultures and fresh blood smears investigations. blood cultures proved Staph-positive and micrococci-like organisms in the blood were repeatedly observed in the 3-year period preceding the arsenical therapy, during which several medicaments, including antibiotics, proved unsuccessful. Following treatment with a low dosage arsenical drug (potassium arsenite 0.5%, im., 1 ml/12 h, for 10 days) both patients experienced complete remission. At the post-treatment control made 1 month later, micrococci had disappeared from the blood, and the CD4/CD8 ratio was raising.
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keywords = animal
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5/23. Vertebral osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection due to Staphylococcus simulans.

    Staphylococcus simulans, a coagulase-negative staphylococcus, is a common animal pathogen that is rarely encountered in human infections. We describe a 70-year-old man who developed multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis and late prosthetic joint infection caused by this pathogen. The patient was a farmer who had daily contact with cows and drank unpasteurized milk, although the portal of the pathogen's entry remains speculative. culture of the vertebral disk biopsy specimen and cultures during resection arthroplasty yielded S. simulans. A review of the literature suggests that S. simulans may be more virulent than other species of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Accurate identification of S. simulans isolates would facilitate studies to further define its pathogenic role in human infections.
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keywords = animal
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6/23. rifampin-impregnated silicone catheters: a potential tool for prevention and treatment of CSF shunt infections.

    BACKGROUND: Infection continues to be one of the major complications of cerebro-spinal fluid shunting procedures. Recent insights in the pathophysiological mechanism of these foreign body infections have elucidated the difficulty of achieving successful treatment without device removal. The development of a rifampin-impregnated silicone catheter yielded excellent results in infection prevention and treatment in vitro as well as in an animal model. patients AND methods: Here, we describe the application of this device in two patients with a complicated course of shunt infection. RESULTS: In one patient the rifampin-impregnated shunt system was implanted after external drainage to prevent further infection. The shunt infection of the second patient was treated by replacement of the infected shunt system with a rifampin-impregnated device. Both patients recovered immediately without any signs of adverse effects and the two shunt systems have now been working properly for more than 36 and 21 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that rifampin-impregnated silicone catheters could become a valuable tool in the treatment and prevention of shunt infections.
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keywords = animal
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7/23. endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus after minor dog bite.

    Living in a society of animal lovers, the dangers are often not always apparent. Injury from bites and scratches is an occupational hazard for those people who work with animals. Despite the high risk of secondary wound infection as a result of an animal bite, many patients do not receive treatment with an antimicrobial medication. This report describes a case of a previously fit and well 66-year-old female dog handler who, after an apparently minor dog bite to the hand, developed fulminant acute Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis and life-threatening aortic regurgitation. This article discusses the microbiology behind dog bites and highlights the need for proper wound hygiene and consideration of prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent potentially fatal outcomes as a result of what initially seem to be minor injuries.
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keywords = animal
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8/23. Linezolid-induced inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis.

    BACKGROUND: Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic that is increasingly used to treat drug-resistant, gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism of action is inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis. Optic and/or peripheral neuropathy and lactic acidosis are reported side effects, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanism has not been unravelled. methods: We studied mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity, and mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) in muscle, liver, and kidney samples obtained from a patient who developed optic neuropathy, encephalopathy, skeletal myopathy, lactic acidosis, and renal failure after prolonged use of linezolid. In addition, we evaluated mtDNA, respiratory chain enzyme activity, and protein amount in muscle and liver samples obtained from experimental animals that received linezolid or placebo. RESULTS: In the patient, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity was decreased in affected tissues, without ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities and without mutations or depletion of mtDNA. In the experimental animals, linezolid induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease of the activity of respiratory chain complexes containing mtDNA-encoded subunits and a decreased amount of protein of these complexes, whereas the amount of mtDNA was normal. CONCLUSION: These results provide direct evidence that linezolid inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis with potentially severe clinical consequences. Prolonged courses of linezolid should be avoided if alternative treatment options are available.
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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9/23. Fatal meningitis due to Staphylococcus cohnii. Case report.

    We report a case of fatal meningitis due to Staphylococcus (S.) Cohnii in a 63-year-old male. S. Cohnii is often isolated from farm animals and known to be less pathogenic in humans. To our knowledge, S. Cohnii has not yet been reported to cause infection of the central nervous system in humans.
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keywords = animal
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10/23. Nonhuman primate bites.

    Nonhuman primate (monkey) bites to researchers and attending animal care staff may present problems in patient management. Such inoculations can transmit serious bacterial and viral infections to the human handlers. Significant local and systemic manifestations can subsequently develop following such an injury. Since Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) is enzootic in Asiatic monkeys of the genus macaca, and since B virus infection in humans is usually fatal, additional prophylactic and therapeutic measures must be taken when persons are bitten by macaque monkeys. Primate bites require early aggressive intervention.
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