Cases reported "Staphylococcal Infections"

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1/82. retropharyngeal abscess. A rare presentation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Early symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can often be deceptive and confusing. Most patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present at an advanced stage with metastatic cervical nodes present at the time of diagnosis. A deep neck abscess as the presenting feature has not been reported. We report two cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma which presented with retropharyngeal abscesses and persistent lymphadenopathy. These two patients illustrate that refractory lymphadenopathy, despite adequate treatment of the associated infection, should prompt a search for underlying disease. The relationship between nasopharyngeal carcinoma and retropharyngeal abscess is discussed.
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2/82. Endovascular occlusion of a carotid pseudoaneurysm complicating deep neck space infection in a child. Case report.

    Pseudoaneurysm formation of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare, potentially lethal complication of deep neck space infection. This entity typically occurs following otolaryngological or upper respiratory tract infection. The pseudoaneurysm is heralded by a pulsatile neck mass, Homer's syndrome, lower cranial neuropathies, and/or hemorrhage that may be massive. The recommended treatment includes prompt arterial ligation. The authors present a case of pseudoaneurysm of the cervical ICA complicating a deep neck space infection. A parapharyngeal Staphylococcus aureus abscess developed in a previously healthy 6-year-old girl after she experienced pharyngitis. The abscess was drained via an intraoral approach. On postoperative Day 3, the patient developed a pulsatile neck mass, lethargy, ipsilateral Horner's syndrome, and hemoptysis, which resulted in hemorrhagic shock. Treatment included emergency endovascular occlusion of the cervical ICA and postembolization antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks. The patient has made an uneventful recovery as of her 18-month follow-up evaluation. Conclusions drawn.from this experience and a review of the literature include the following: 1) mycotic pseudoaneurysms of the carotid arteries have a typical clinical presentation that should enable timely recognition; 2) these lesions occur more commonly in children than in adults; 3) angiography with a view to performing endovascular occlusion should be undertaken promptly; and 4) endovascular occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm is a viable treatment option.
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3/82. Intraoral botryomycosis masquerading as a pyogenic granuloma.

    Bacterial pseudomycosis also known as Botryomycosis is a rare, indolent infection that has been described in patients with immunodeficiency and tissue with decreased healing ability. It affects the visceral organs and infection in the head and neck has been described as affecting the tongue and jaw bones. Histologically, the disease is characterized by the presence of 'Bollinger granules', surrounded by neutrophils in a fibrocellular stroma. A case of gingival Botryomycosis is presented which was diagnosed as a routine pyogenic granuloma in a healthy male.
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4/82. Tracheocarotid artery fistula infected with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.

    Massive life-threatening haemorrhage from a fistula between the trachea and a major blood vessel of the neck is a rare complication of the tracheostomy procedure, well-recognized by anaesthetists and otolaryngologists. Although the lesion is likely to be encountered at autopsy, it is not described in histopathological literature. The possible causes are discussed together with the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of the lesion. Suitable procedures for its identification and for obtaining appropriate histopathological blocks are suggested. Presence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has not been documented before and might have contributed to the genesis of the fistula in this case.
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5/82. A fatal case of craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis.

    A case of fatal craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis is described in a 72-year-old diabetic woman and management is discussed. Progressive infection of the eyelids occurred with involvement of the right side of the face. Computed tomography revealed soft tissue swelling. Antibiotic treatment was started and debridement performed; histopathology showed acute inflammation and thrombosis of the epidermis and dermis. Despite treatment, scepticemia occurred, resulting in death less than 48 h after presentation. At this time extensive necrosis had developed in the superficial fascia with undermining and gangrene of surrounding tissues. streptococcus and Staphylococcus were the pathogens involved. Poor prognosis in similar patients has been associated with extensive infection, involvement of the lower face and neck, delayed treatment, advanced age, diabetes and vascular disease.
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6/82. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis with sternocostoclavicular osteomyelitis and partial thoracic empyema: report of a case.

    We present herein the case of a 50-year-old woman in whom descending necrotizing mediastinitis originating from an anterior neck abscess spread to the left upper bony thorax, resulting in osteomyelitis of the left sternocostoclavicular articulation and left partial thoracic empyema. Transcervical mediastinal irrigation and drainage was performed with aggressive antibiotic therapy, followed by resection of the left sternocostoclavicular joint and debridement of the anterior mediastinum. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and her left arm and shoulder mobility was well preserved.
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7/82. Necrotizing fasciitis after peritonsillar abscess in an immunocompetent patient.

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is a rapidly progressive, severe bacterial infection of the fascial planes of the head and neck. Group A beta haemolytic streptococcus spp. (GABHS), Staphylococcus spp., or obligatory anaerobic bacteria are the most common causative pathogens. The disease usually results from a dental source or facial trauma. Extensive fascial necrosis and severe systemic toxicity are common manifestations of CNF. review of the literature reveals only seven such cases, with four successful outcomes. The authors present the case of a 50-year-old immunocompetent female with CNF arising from a peritonsillar abscess. Intravenous immunoglobulins in conjunction with surgery and antibiotics were used successfully. The authors also suggest the importance of the early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and possible usefulness of the intravenous immunoglobulins in the treatment of CNF, especially when the disease is associated with toxic shock syndrome.
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8/82. Acute non-purulent inflammatory arthropathy associated with Staphylococcus aureus abscess.

    Case 1. A 20-year-old woman presented 4 weeks post-partum with widespread symmetrical inflammatory polyarthropathy with marked synovitis. Investigations revealed grossly raised CRP with negative immunology screen. A few days before presentation she saw her general practitioner with left-sided mastitis, which then developed into a Staphylococcus breast abscess. Surgical drainage of this led to almost immediate resolution of the joint complaints and return of CRP to normal. Case 2. A 27-year-old man developed widespread symmetrical inflammatory arthropathy. A few days prior to this he had developed folliculitis with a furuncle on his neck. Swab grew Staphylococcus aureus. His arthritis settled immediately following spontaneous drainage of his abscess and a full course of antibiotic. The pathogenic mechanism is unclear but could be toxin-mediated.
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9/82. Postsurgical prevertebral abscess of the cervical spine.

    OBJECTIVES: Prevertebral abscess formation is an uncommon occurrence following cervical spine fusion surgery. Abscesses may present early or in a delayed fashion and require surgical drainage and long-term antibiotic treatment. The issues of osteomyelitis and the need for plate removal remain unresolved. STUDY DESIGN: A case series of six tetraplegic patients admitted for rehabilitation to the Chaim Sheba Medical Center (Tel Hashomer, israel) is presented. methods: Five patients were trauma patients; one patient underwent repeated procedures and irradiation for tumor of the cervical spine. All patients developed prevertebral abscesses after a mean period of 30 days from their fusion surgery. Computed tomography scan was used in all patients to establish the diagnosis and define the extent of the infective process. All patients underwent one or more drainage procedures. The plate was removed in two patients at 1 and 4 months. RESULTS: infection completely resolved in four patient and was refractory in one patient with malignant tumor, and a chronic small fistula remained in one case. Staphylococcus aureus was the main infective organism, but mixed infections were the rule. Even for a protracted course of infection, no significant osteomyelitis was encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Abscess formation after instrumentation of the neck may be more common than formerly recognized. Despite the prolonged course of disease and treatment, osteomyelitis is not a major concern. There is no automatic indication for plate removal to control infection, although plating may be safely removed after 10 to 12 weeks if the neck is explored and the cervical spine is stable. A high index of suspicion is warranted, and early recognition and diagnosis, prompt surgical drainage under general anesthesia, and long-term antibiotic treatment are key for eradication of the infective process. Prophylactic antibiotics may be of value. Meticulous antisepsis and surgical technique should be maintained to reduce the incidence of these severe complications.
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10/82. Neonatal cervical osteomyelitis with paraspinal abscess and Erb's palsy. A case report and brief review of the literature.

    An unusual case of pyogenic cervical osteomyelitis is reported in a newborn who immediately after birth had no movements in the left shoulder. There was a fullness in the left cervical region. Left Erb's palsy due to an unrecognized birth trauma was diagnosed in a peripheral hospital. Later, the child developed fever and a significant swelling in the left cervical region. On transfer to our institution, the x-rays of the cervical spine, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) established the diagnosis of C(6) cervical osteomyelitis and paraspinal abscess which extended to the posterior triangle of the neck. The abscess was drained, and the lamina and lateral mass of the C(6) vertebra were debrided. Staphylococcus aureus was grown from the pus. The patient was put on long-term antibiotics to which he responded very well, and he became asymptomatic. In the immediate post-operative period, some movements at the left shoulder were noted, and at 6-month follow-up in the out-patient clinic, the child was virtually normal with near-complete regeneration of the C(6) lamina and lateral mass.
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