Cases reported "Status Epilepticus"

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1/29. Unusual presentation and course of hiv-1 progressive encephalopathy.

    The present report concerns a vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-infected 7-year-old child, in whom a neurodegenerative disease occurred after an acute neurologic disorder that was in all likelihood symptomatic of hiv-1 encephalitis. At the steady state the neurologic disease fulfilled the accepted criteria of HIV-related progressive encephalopathy of childhood and was characterized by involvement of multiple neural systems and subcortical dementia. The neurologic disease displayed, however, atypical presentation and course, and its acute focal onset led the authors to postulate an acute and direct involvement of the brain in hiv-1 infection. The correlation between the cliniconeuroradiologic data and levels of HIV-rna in the cerebrospinal fluid and the response to different antiretroviral treatments are also discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/29. Repetitive synchronized cyclical oscillations of multisystem parameters subsequent to high-dose thiopental therapy for status epilepticus secondary to herpes encephalitis.

    We report a case of status epilepticus secondary to herpes encephalitis, treated with thiopental infusion and mechanical ventilation. The computerized storage and analysis of physiological data led to the detection of repetitive synchronized cyclical oscillations of arterial pressure, heart rate, EEG parameters, peripheral temperature and core temperature. arterial pressure oscillations have been described in patients who are severely systemically unwell; cardiovascular and brain electrical activity may also oscillate in the presence of raised intracranial pressure. In contrast, this patient had no features of severe systemic illness or of raised intracranial pressure. Our hypothesis is that high-dose thiopental may have been a cause of our findings by producing autonomic dysfunction.
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ranking = 5.0054930481778
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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3/29. Prolonged treatment of refractory status epilepticus in a child.

    Barbiturate anesthesia, which is commonly used for refractory status epilepticus, is an effective treatment, but with many significant complications. The relationship between the duration of this extreme therapy and the ultimate outcome of refractory status epilepticus has not been well studied. We report a 7-year-old girl who presented with refractory status epilepticus secondary to presumed encephalitis with a focal lesion on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. She was treated for 70 days with high-dose antiepileptic drugs and recovered with a residual seizure disorder. This case suggests that, if the status epilepticus is due to a reversible cause such as encephalitis, neurologic recovery may occur despite this very prolonged course of extreme therapy.
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ranking = 2
keywords = encephalitis
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4/29. status epilepticus due to human parvovirus B19 encephalitis in an immunocompetent adult.

    Human parvovirus (HPV) B19 is a rare cause of encephalitis in children and immunocompromised adults. The authors describe a case of an otherwise healthy woman who developed encephalitis complicated by prolonged status epilepticus. Human parvovirus B19 infection was suggested by a prodromal, malar rash and established by the presence of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in the patient's serum. This is the first reported case of HPV B19 encephalitis in an immunocompetent adult.
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ranking = 7
keywords = encephalitis
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5/29. Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges after complex partial status epilepticus associated with increased focal cerebral blood flow.

    Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) are typically associated with encephalitis, cerebral abscess, cerebral infarct, and status epilepticus. There is considerable debate as to whether this pattern is ictal or interictal when seen in association with status epilepticus. We present a patient with complex partial status epilepticus who developed PLEDs and remained comatose despite optimal drug therapy. technetium 99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed hyperperfusion that resolved with further aggressive antiepileptic drug therapy, indicating that this pattern may indeed be ictal. Further studies are needed to define the significance of PLEDs in patients with status epilepticus. The role of SPECT in differentiating PLEDs as an interictal or ictal pattern also requires further study.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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6/29. An MRI and neuropathological study of a case of fatal status epilepticus.

    We report a case of fatal status epilepticus of unknown origin resulting in acute neuropathological changes in the hippocampus and claustrum.The case history, brain magnetic resonance images, and results of neuropathological study of the whole brain were obtained.The subject was a 35 year old male with no significant previous medical history who presented with generalized epileptic seizures progressing to status epilepticus. He died 6 days after developing status epilepticus. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were performed before and four days after developing status epilepticus. The first scan was normal and the second showed high signal lesions on T2 weighted images in the medial aspects of both temporal lobes and in the right claustrum. Neuropathological studies showed severe neuronal loss in the Sommer section of both hippocampi with early glial reactive changes. Similar changes were seen in the claustrum on both sides. There was no evidence of other causes of brain injury such as infectious encephalitis or global hypoxic-ischaemic change.The patient died of status epilepticus for which no underlying cause was found despite extensive investigation. In this case the radiological and pathological changes found bilaterally in the claustrum and hippocampus appear to be the direct result of the status epilepticus.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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7/29. Non-herpetic fulminant meningoencephalitis with periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges.

    This report concerns two patients with fulminant meningoencephalitis presenting in status epilepticus with periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) observed on electroencephalogram. The titer of herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody was not elevated in either serum or cerebrospinal fluid, and acyclovir was not effective for either patient. Corticosteroid therapy was dramatically effective, however, suggesting that autoimmune inflammatory diseases were the underlying systemic disorders. PLEDs can thus be associated with steroid-responsive inflammatory meningoencephalitis.
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ranking = 6.0010986096356
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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8/29. Hippocampal shape analysis in status epilepticus associated with acute encephalitis.

    We performed MR imaging deformation-based hippocampal shape analysis in a 28-year-old woman in whom status epilepticus developed after acute encephalitis. Hippocampal shape analysis revealed severe global bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Regional volume loss was most accentuated in the medial and lateral aspects of the hippocampal head; the loss was similar to shape changes in hippocampal sclerosis of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. This deformation pattern may reflect a common pathologic process that causes hippocampal volume loss in both of these conditions.
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ranking = 5
keywords = encephalitis
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9/29. Sequential MRI studies of a patient with complex partial status--a case report.

    Complex partial status (CPS), the status epilepticus of complex partial seizure, is rarely seen in clinical practice. The clinical presentations of CPS are characterized by confusion, slowness in response, together with stereotypic or complex automatisms and occasional secondary generalization. The electroencephalographic findings of CPS reveal characteristic focal epileptiform activities of mesial temporal region. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) is the imaging method of choice for studying epilepsy, particularly when focus is in the temporal lobe. We report a 49-year-old female with diagnosis of viral encephalitis and clinical presentation of CPS. We present the sequential brain MRI findings at acute, subacute and chronic stages of this patient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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10/29. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in bartonella encephalopathy.

    The authors describe 2 patients with new-onset, refractory status epilepticus and serological evidence for bartonella infection. brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patient 1 showed transient diffusion abnormalities in the posterior (pulvinar) thalami. In patient 2, brain MRI showed several enhancing cortical lesions, of which one lesion was bright on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). In patients with unexplained, refractory seizures, the presence of DWI abnormalities warrants a search for unusual infectious or inflammatory disorders, like bartonella encephalitis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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