Cases reported "Status Epilepticus"

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11/607. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in childhood localization-related epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report on three children with localization-related epilepsy who exhibited minor seizures (atypical absences, brief atonic, and myoclonic) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) consisting of these minor seizures, and to elucidate their significance. methods: We studied the electroclinical characteristics of these children. Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of NCSE were evaluated by using simultaneous video-EEG-electromyogram (EMG) polygraphic recordings. RESULTS: All patients began to have partial seizures between the ages of 6 months and 2 years 7 months, with minor seizures appearing later, between the ages of 1 year 11 months and 6 years 6 months. These minor seizures evolved into NCSE. Complex partial seizures remained after suppression of the minor seizures. Interictal EEGs taken when the minor seizures appeared showed excessive diffuse epileptic discharges in addition to multifocal spike-waves. Before and after suppression of the minor seizures, focal epileptic discharges predominated on the EEGs. On ictal EEGs of brief atonic and myoclonic seizures, diffuse spike-wave and polyspike-wave bursts were detected. Ictal EEGs of the atypical absences revealed diffuse spike-wave bursts mixed with irregular high-voltage slow waves, often interspersed with brief atonic and myoclonic seizures. When atypical absences lasted for a long time, patients manifested NCSE. Polytherapy might be related to the occurrence of minor seizures and NCSE, because all patients were treated with polytherapy at their appearance, and simplification of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy seemed to be effective. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this NCSE is a type of atypical absence status which is an age-dependent, transient, electroclinical condition. The mechanism of occurrence of these minor seizures might be related to secondary bilateral synchrony.
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ranking = 1
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, convulsive status epilepticus, convulsive status, status, absence status
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12/607. Development of focal chronic epilepsy following focal status epilepticus in adult patients.

    In several experimental models, status epilepticus (SE) leads to secondary brain hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis. In humans, such phenomena have been rarely demonstrated, particularly in cases of SE involving the neocortical structures. We report a 36 year old woman that presented partial SE in May 1991 involving the right cerebral hemisphere. The patient was then treated in the intensive care unit with artificial ventilation and anesthesia by pentobarbital and clometiazole. MRI showed transient right parietal and temporal posterior cortical hyperintensity. The cause of SE was not determined. Three months later, the patient developed partial complex seizures with aura characterized by vertigo, nausea and auditory hallucination. Ictal video/EEG recording showed a clear right temporal posterior onset of the discharges. We speculate that status epilepticus created the lesions which subsequently caused the focal chronic epilepsy.
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ranking = 1.1394402229416
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status, complex
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13/607. Two cases of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in association with tiagabine therapy.

    We report two patients with intractable partial seizures who developed generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) after receiving tiagabine (TGB). Neither had a history of absence seizures or generalized epileptic discharges on prior EEG monitoring. Clinicians need to be aware of a possible association between TGB and NCSE.
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ranking = 0.99861375727251
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, convulsive status epilepticus, convulsive status, status
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14/607. Folinic acid-responsive neonatal seizures.

    We report three cases of folinic acid-responsive intractable neonatal seizures. All patients were born at term following normal gestation and delivery. In the first infant, seizures began on the 5th day of life and were unresponsive to phenobarbital, pyridoxine, and valproate, but stopped within 24 hours of initiation of folinic acid treatment at the age of 6 months. Her sibling had died at age 6 months with intractable seizures. In the second infant, seizures began in the 2nd hour of life. These were initially controlled with phenobarbital; however, at 3 months of age she developed status epilepticus refractory to anticonvulsants, steroids, and pyridoxine and she required repeated induction of pentobarbital coma. seizures stopped within 24 hours of starting folinic acid. seizures and encephalopathy were noted in the third infant on the 2nd day of life. These were controlled with phenobarbital, but at 8 weeks of age seizures recurred and were difficult to control despite the addition of phenytoin. Immediately after folinic acid was initiated the seizures stopped. Breakthrough seizures in all patients have responded to increases in folinic acid; two of the three remain on standard anticonvulsants. All patients have global developmental delay. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging in the second patient shows diffuse atrophy, and in the third patient shows increased signal on T2 images in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobes. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from these patients using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection has consistently revealed an as-yet unidentified compound, which can be used as a marker for this condition. We suggest that cerebrospinal fluid be analyzed for the presence of this compound and a trial of folinic acid be considered in neonates with unexplained early onset intractable seizures.
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ranking = 0.18990696907155
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status, mal
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15/607. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in a child with congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome.

    A 9-year-old male with congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome is described. He had pseudobulbar palsy, mental retardation, and intractable epilepsy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of the brain demonstrated bilateral perisylvian malformations and a diffuse pachygyric appearance. At 8 years of age, he had episodes of excessive drooling, fluctuating impairment of consciousness, unsteady sitting, and frequent head drop that lasted several days. The electroencephalogram demonstrated continuous diffuse slow spike and waves. These findings suggested atypical absence status epilepticus. Intravenous administration of diazepam resulted in transient improvement of clinical and electroencephalographic findings. status epilepticus recurred within several minutes after diazepam administration. Although no patient has been reported to have a history of status epilepticus among those affected by this syndrome, it seems that atypical absence status can occur more frequently than expected, as seen in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. After recognition and confirmation of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, immediate treatment must be attempted.
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ranking = 1.4350821610049
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, convulsive status epilepticus, convulsive status, status, absence status, mal
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16/607. Fatal status epilepticus associated with olanzapine therapy.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of fatal status epilepticus in a patient using olanzapine with no known underlying cause or predisposing factor for seizure. CASE SUMMARY: A 41-year-old white woman developed witnessed seizures at home that progressed to status epilepticus. She subsequently died from secondary rhabdomyolysis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. She had been taking olanzapine for five months prior to the event. No other toxic, metabolic, or anatomic abnormalities were identified pre- or postmortem to explain the seizures. Her seizures were a probable adverse drug reaction based on the Naranjo scale. DISCUSSION: This is the first case of fatal status epilepticus described that has been associated with the use of olanzapine. The pharmacodynamics of olanzapine are similar to those of clozapine, which has been described to induce seizures in 1-4% of patients. It is possible that this patient may have suffered seizures due to a similar effect. Alternate explanations include neuroleptic malignant syndrome and alcohol or benzodiazepine withdrawal seizures, although her clinical history does not suggest these etiologies. CONCLUSIONS: Although olanzapine has infrequently been associated with seizures in premarketing studies, its potential to induce them exists. Postmarketing surveillance should continue to determine how significant this effect may be.
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ranking = 1.329347445514
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status, mal
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17/607. hiv infection and seizures.

    New-onset seizures are frequent manifestations of central nervous system disorders in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). seizures are more common in advanced stages of the disease, although they may occur early in the course of illness. In the majority of patients, seizures are of the generalised type. status epilepticus is also frequent. Associated metabolic abnormalities increase the risk for status epilepticus. Cerebral mass lesions, cryptococcal meningitis, and hiv-encephalopathy are common causes of seizures. phenytoin is the most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant in this situation, although several patients may experience hypersensitivity reactions. The prognosis of seizure disorders in hiv-infected patients depends upon the underlying cause.
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ranking = 0.24472264936553
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status, mal
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18/607. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in acute brain injury.

    Whether or not nonconvulsive status epilepticus produces permanent brain damage is a source of controversy. Contributing to the controversy is the lack of clarity for classifying the clinical and electrographic phenomena that constitute nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus commonly occurs in the context of an acute brain injury. For example, it commonly persists in generalized convulsive status epilepticus after convulsive activity has stopped, and it is not uncommonly associated with acute cerebral ischemia. Its clinical characteristics are ambiguous, subtle, and nonspecific making the diagnosis difficult. In the absence of EEG testing, it is likely to be missed or delayed. When acute brain injury and nonconvulsive status epilepticus occur concurrently, the severity of acute brain injury has traditionally been accepted as determining patient outcome. However, increasing evidence suggests that the two conditions are synergistically detrimental and increase brain injury. Guidelines remain to be established for the intensity and duration of anticonvulsant therapy in these patients. Evidence suggests that, in the absence of extreme and irreversible acute brain injury, early intensive intervention is necessary to improve the otherwise poor outcome of these patients.
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ranking = 1.7975047630905
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, convulsive status epilepticus, convulsive status, status
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19/607. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in eyelid myoclonia with absences--evidence of provocation unrelated to photosensitivity.

    A 10-year old girl with eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA) in whom nonconvulsive status epilepticus developed shortly after awakening is described. A video-polygraphic recording during the status showed the characteristic eye-closure provocation of eyelid myoclonia with upward deviation of the eyeballs and brief absences. Ictal EEG showed generalized polyspikes concomitant with eyelid myoclonia, while absences were accompanied by 3.5 Hz polyspike-wave complexes on EEG. This condition occurred even in total darkness as well as even after seizures precipitated by bright sunlight had been eliminated by medication. The present case suggests that the eye closure mechanism could be a more potent precipitating factor than photosensitivity in the pathophysiology of EMA.
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ranking = 0.99954747152864
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, convulsive status epilepticus, convulsive status, status, complex
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20/607. Tiagabine-induced absence status in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Several medications such as baclofen, amitriptyline and even antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine or vigabatrin are known to induce absence status epilepticus in patients with generalized epilepsies. Tiagabine (TGB) is effective in patients with focal epilepsies. However, TGB has also been reported to induce non-convulsive status epilepticus in several patients with focal epilepsies and in one patient with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In animal models of generalized epilepsy, TGB induces absence status with 3-5 Hz spike-wave complexes. We describe a 32-year-old patient with absence epilepsy and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures since 11 years of age, who developed her first absence status epilepticus while treated with 45 mg of TGB daily. Administration of lorazepam and immediate reduction in TGB dosage was followed by complete clinical and electroencephalographic remission. This case demonstrates that TGB can induce typical absence status epilepticus in a patient with primary generalized epilepsy.
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ranking = 0.78369094927918
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, convulsive status epilepticus, non-convulsive status epilepticus, convulsive status, non-convulsive status, status, non-convulsive, absence status, mal, complex
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