Cases reported "Stomach Neoplasms"

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1/62. Increased frequency of antigen-specific CD8( ) cytotoxic T lymphocytes infiltrating an Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma.

    Gastric adenocarcinomas carrying Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known to be accompanied by massive lymphocyte infiltration. To characterize the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), we isolated and cultured such cells from a surgically resected EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. They were found to be positive for CD3, CD8, T-cell receptor beta chain, and cytotoxic molecules. The isolated TILs consisted of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted CD8( ) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which killed autologous EBV-transformed cells (but not phytohemagglutinin blast cells) and recognized HLA-A24 as restriction molecules. However, the TILs did not recognize known EBV antigenic peptides presented by HLA-A24 molecules, nor HLA-A24( ) fibroblasts infected with vaccinia recombinant virus expressing each of the EBV latent proteins. EBV( ) gastric carcinomas do not express conventional target proteins of EBV-specific CTLs, and the data suggest that some cellular proteins may be involved in the strong T-cell response to EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. In addition, our data suggest that class I-restricted, antigen-specific CD8( ) CTLs are specifically expanded within EBV( ) gastric carcinoma tissue.
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2/62. Synovial sarcoma of the upper digestive tract: a report of two cases with demonstration of the X;18 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Two cases of synovial sarcoma that arose in the upper digestive tract are reported. One case was a polypoid mass that arose at the gastroesophageal junction; the other was a large intramural mass that arose in the wall of the stomach. Both cases had a classic biphasic pattern. In the stomach tumor, the biphasic morphology was focal and there was an abrupt transition to poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma. The tumors had immunohistochemical features that were consistent with synovial sarcoma. Ultrastructural evaluation of the gastroesophageal tumor supported the diagnosis. The diagnostic X;18 translocation was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization on sections from paraffin-embedded tissue in 86% and 50% of interphase nuclei from the gastroesophageal and gastric tumor, respectively. The translocation was present in equal frequency in the epithelial and spindle cells in the biphasic areas and the poorly differentiated areas of the gastric tumor, indicating that the development of the more aggressive subclone was probably due to genetic mutations not encompassing the SYT-SSX gene fusion product. We are aware of only five reported cases of synovial sarcoma arising in the digestive tract, all in the proximal esophagus. These cases are the first reported arising in the gastroesophageal junction and stomach and the only cases of synovial sarcoma of the digestive tract in which the diagnostic translocation was demonstrated. Sarcomatoid carcinoma (carcinosarcoma) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor are the main differential diagnoses for synovial sarcoma in this site. Synovial sarcoma of the digestive tract may be underdiagnosed, and its recognition may have important clinical implications. fluorescence in situ hybridization is helpful in making this distinction.
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3/62. hemobilia, intrahepatic hematoma and acute thrombosis with cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein after percutaneous thermoablation of a liver metastasis.

    A 53-year-old-man underwent US-guided percutaneous thermal ablation with a cooled-tip needle of three liver metastases from gastric cancer. Six days later, the patient was re-admitted for melena, scleral jaundice, and anemia. Abdominal US disclosed echogenic material in the gallbladder lumen (hemobilia) and a focal lesion with mixed echotexture in segment III (hepatic hematoma). On day 5 portal cavernomatosis was diagnosed at US and confirmed by color Doppler and a helical CT exam. The case described emphasizes that radio-frequency interstitial hyperthermia may cause not only traumatic injury of the liver parenchyma but also thermally mediated damage of vascular structures.
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4/62. Intratumor heterogeneity of centromere numerical abnormality in multiple primary gastric cancers: application of fluorescence in situ hybridization with intermittent microwave irradiation on paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Our recent success in retrieving distinct fluorescence signals in response to centromere specific probing of paraffin-embedded tissues after intermittent microwave (MW) treatment provided the opportunity to analyze chromosome numbers or centromere abnormality in situ in human tumors in various clinicopathological settings. In this study, centromere numerical abnormality (CNA) was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a case of multiple gastric cancer having intratumor histological heterogeneity. The different profiles as determined using a total of 20 specific probes on 4 multifocal lesions in the stomach confirmed the multi-clonality of these tumors. FISH with probes specific for chromosomes 10, 11, 16 and 18 revealed intratumor heterogeneity of the CNA, which corresponded to the histological heterogeneity. Our report clearly demonstrates, for the first time, intratumor heterogeneity of CNA and its association with the histological picture, and substantiates the applicability of the MW-assisted FISH protocol to paraffin-embedded pathological specimens.
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5/62. Chromosomal imbalances in gastric cancer. Correlation with histologic subtypes and tumor progression.

    dna copy number changes were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 38 gastric carcinomas and correlated with tumor histologic type and progression. Gains of copy numbers were observed in all tumors, affecting all chromosomes except chromosome 16. The average number of copy number gains was 7 (range, 1-13), most frequently located on chromosomes 11, 12, 15, 17, and 20 in 45% to 97% of tumors. High-level amplifications were found on chromosomes 12, 15, 17, and 20; the latter was affected most frequently (66%). Loss of dna copy numbers was detected in 14 tumors affecting 7 chromosomes. No statistically significant differences in the frequency and pattern of chromosomal imbalances were observed in tumor histologic type (Lauren classification) and grade of differentiation, as well as the prognostic parameters depth of invasion (pT) and lymph node involvement (pN). Our results indicate that in gastric cancer there is no specific recurrent pattern of dna aberrations to be correlated with tumor histologic type or stage. However, CGH analysis could reveal new, recurrent genetic changes in gastric cancer affecting chromosomes sites that harbor genes known to participate in tumorigenesis and progression of several human malignant neoplasms.
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6/62. Altered expression of the fragile histidine triad gene in primary gastric adenocarcinomas.

    Genomic alterations and abnormal expression of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene in gastric carcinomas were examined to determine whether the FHIT gene is actually a frequent target for alteration during gastric carcinogenesis. To correlate dna and RNA lesions of the FHIT gene with the effect on FHIT protein expression, we have investigated the FHIT gene for loss of heterozygosity (LOH), aberrant transcripts, point mutations, and protein expression in 35 gastric adenocarcinomas. Allelic loss at D3S1300 was detected in 7 of 33 (21%) informative cases. Aberrant transcripts, with deletions and/or insertions, were observed in 20 of 35 (57.1%) cases and resulted from alternative splicing through exon skipping and/or insertion of the FHIT intron 5 sequence or activation of the cryptic splice site. Point mutations were not found in the FHIT coding region but detected in noncoding exon 2, 3, 4, or 5 of eight aberrant transcripts. Significant reduction of FHIT protein expression was observed in 22 of 35 (62.9%) cases. Aberrant FHIT transcription was shown to be associated with loss of FHIT protein expression. However, aberrant FHIT transcripts themselves were not associated with any clinicopathological parameters, such as age, sex, tumor site, or clinical stage. Moreover, there was no association between the presence of LOH at D3S1300 and the expression of aberrant FHIT transcripts. Nevertheless, high frequency of aberrant FHIT transcripts, significant rate of LOH at D3S1300, and altered expression of the FHIT protein indicate that alterations of the FHIT gene can play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis.
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7/62. Gastric linitis adenocarcinoma and carcinomatous meningitis: an infrequent but aggressive association--report of four cases.

    Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) is a very rare complication of gastrointestinal malignancies and especially gastric adenocarcinoma. linitis plastica (LP), which is a specific form of gastric neoplasia, locally penetrates through the gastric wall to reach the peritoneum. Lymph node involvement is frequent and metastatic sites are almost exclusively observed in the abdominal cavity. The meningeal localization is extremely rare with only a few cases described in the literature. We report here, over a five-year period, four cases of CM on a total of eighty linitis cases diagnosed and treated in our institution, which represent 5% of a non selected linitis population. The clinical manifestations were clearly poor, and characterized by aspecific neurological signs. The diagnosis was made by the discovery of signet cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. Invasive treatment, consisting of intrathecal infusion of chemotherapy, was undertaken with mixed clinical response and no cytological normalization of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In conclusion, our observation which is based on a large series of successive gastric linitis, demonstrates a 5% frequency of developing CM with a predominance among metastatic patients. Furthermore, the diagnosis of CM must be done as soon as possible because of the clear effectiveness of a therapeutic approach on the improvement of symptoms and quality of life.
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8/62. Metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the stomach to the 4th metacarpal bone.

    Metastatic tumours of the hand are uncommon. The majority of these tumours affect the phalanges and the primary tumours are usually bronchogenic in origin, with breast and kidney tumours next in frequency. Metastatic gastrointestinal to the hand is rare and usually from the colon. We report a case of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach antrum presenting with a metastatic lesion to the right 4th metacarpal bone. A review of the literature is included.
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9/62. A patient with small-cell carcinoma of the stomach with long survival after percutaneous microwave coagulating therapy (PMCT) for liver metastasis.

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with epigastralgia. Preoperative examinations revealed an 8.0 x 8.0-cm, Borrmann type 2 tumor in the posterior wall of the cardia, without distant metastases. Total gastrectomy with pancreato-splenectomy and regional lymph node dissection was performed curatively. Histologically, the tumor was composed mainly of small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm, which showed positive staining for Grimelius, gamma-neuron-specific enolase (gamma-NSE), chromogranin a, and serotonin. About 10 months after the operation, a solitary tumor was revealed in S8 of the liver by abdominal computed tomography (CT), and it was histologically confirmed by needle biopsy to be a metastasis of the small-cell carcinoma from the stomach. Instead of hepatectomy, percutaneous microwave coagulating therapy (PMCT) was indicated, because of the patients' liver dysfunction (ICG R15, 39.9%); CT showed complete necrosis of the metastatic focus in the liver after the PMCT. Now, 33 months after the first detection of the liver metastasis (43 months after the gastrectomy), the patient is still alive without any growth of the liver metastasis. The 67 previously reported cases of small-cell carcinoma of the stomach in japan, including ours, are also reviewed.
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10/62. Laparoscopic intragastric surgery for gastric tube cancer following esophagectomy.

    As a result of the recent improvement of the prognosis of esophageal cancer, the reporting frequency of gastric tube cancer following esophageal cancer has increased. Gastric tube total resection following median sternotomy, a highly invasive surgical procedure, is applied to the cases of advanced gastric tube cancer, whereas endoscopic mucosal resection is selected for the cases of early gastric tube cancer. If endoscopic mucosal resection is not applicable for some reason, partial or total resection of the gastric tube following median sternotomy has been selected. We applied laparoscopic intragastric surgery to such a case: The patient, a 59-year-old man with esophageal cancer, had undergone subtotal esophagectomy followed by gastric tube reconstruction through the retrosternal route 6 years before. Since endoscopy revealed early gastric cancer in the body of the stomach, we tried to perform mucosal resection but failed because of anastomotic stenosis. However, we successfully performed intragastric surgery, in which a camera and forceps were inserted directly into the gastric tube. Thus, laparoscopic intragastric surgery is a useful technique in cases to which endoscopic mucosal resection is not applicable.
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