Cases reported "Stomatognathic Diseases"

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1/6. Supraesophageal complications of gastroesophageal reflux.

    Supraesophageal complications of GERD have become more commonly recognized or suspected by physicians. However, the direct association between these complications and GERD has often been difficult, if not impossible, to establish. Furthermore, the majority of patients with suspected supraesophageal complications of GERD do not have either the characteristic symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation or the definitive findings of esophageal inflammation, which would help reinforce the suspicion of a connection between the supraesophageal complications and GERD. Frequent acid reflux has been shown in patients with various bron-chopulmonary, laryngopharyngeal, or oral cavity disorders. GERD is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints in the population. It is possible that the supraesophageal problems and acid reflux are mutually independent disorders that occur in the same person. The suspected mechanisms of GERD-related supraesophageal complications appear to be directed through two pathways: by a vagal reflex between the esophagus and tracheobronchial tree triggered by acid reflux or by microaspiration that causes contact damage to mucosal surfaces. The most useful diagnostic modality available to the clinician to aid in the diagnosis of supraesophageal GERD complications is the ambulatory pH recording technique. However, the sensitivity and specificity of this test for recording esophageal or pharyngeal acid reflux events has been critically challenged. Despite the many clinical studies that support the theory that GER has a role in suspected supraesophageal complications, only 1 long-term prospective controlled study of a large group of patients with asthma has shown the positive effects of the elimination of acid reflux. With the focus now on "outcomes medicine," there is a serious need for appropriately designed, controlled studies to answer the many questions surrounding a cause-and-effect association between acid reflux and supraesophageal disorders. Because of the lack of convincing proof between acid reflux and suspected supraesophageal complications, the physician must resort to an intent-to-treat strategy as both a primary therapy and a diagnostic trial. High-dose PPI therapy for prolonged periods is the recognized conservative therapy. Operative therapy (i.e., fundoplication operation) is the procedure of choice when overt regurgitation occurs or when medical therapy, although successful, is not practical for long periods. Controlled, well-designed clinical trials and more sophisticated techniques to measure and quantify acid reflux are crucial in the future to help determine which patients with suspected supraesophageal complications actually have acid reflux as a primary cause. The medical community needs to be alerted to the possibility of an association between GERD and supra-esophageal complications so that patients with a GERD-related complication will be recognized and effectively treated. ( info)

2/6. oral manifestations of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy: a case report.

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy is a hereditary metabolic disorder of dominant autosomal etiology that is commonly characterized by short stature, round face, small metacarpus and metatarsus, mental retardation, osteoporosis, subcutaneous calcification, variable hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia. In this study, we report a clinical case of a 17-year-old woman with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, and we discuss her clinical, radiographic, and laboratory test characteristics together with the oral manifestations, and we correlate them with the characteristics found in the literature. We also discuss the odontological management of treatment of related periodontal disease and planning for corrections of related malocclusions. ( info)

3/6. Transient Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome after surgical resection of a right insulo-opercular low-grade glioma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We describe an atypical case of transient Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, or faciopharyngoglossomasticatory diplegia with automatic voluntary dissociation, occurring after surgical resection of a right insulo-opercular glioma. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old right-handed man experienced partial seizures that were poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs during a 2-year period as a result of a right insulo-opercular low-grade glioma, leading to the proposal of surgical resection. In addition, 1 year before the operation, the patient experienced a severe brain injury that resulted in a coma. A computed tomographic scan revealed left opercular contusion. The patient recovered completely within 6 months. INTERVENTION: Intraoperative corticosubcortical electrical functional mapping was performed along the resection, allowing the identification and preservation of the facial and upper limb motor structures. A subtotal removal of the glioma was achieved. The patient had postoperative anarthria, with loss of voluntary muscular functions of the face and tongue, and he had trouble chewing and swallowing. All of these symptoms resolved within 3 months. CONCLUSION: These findings provide insight into the use of surgery to treat a right insulo-opercular tumor. First, surgeons must be particularly cautious in cases with a potential contralateral lesion (e.g., history of head injury), even if such a lesion is not visible on magnetic resonance imaging scans; preoperative metabolic imaging and electrophysiological investigations should be considered before an operative decision is made. Second, surgeons must perform intraoperative functional mapping to identify and to attempt to preserve the corticosubcortical facial motor structures. A procedure performed while the patient is awake should be discussed to detect the structures involved in chewing and swallowing in cases of suspected bilateral lesions. Third, the patient must be informed of this particular risk before surgery is performed. ( info)

4/6. A case of soft tissue myoepithelial tumor arising in masticator space.

    Soft tissue myoepithelial tumors of the head and neck region are very rare, and only one case of soft tissue myoepithelial tumor occurring in the masticator space has been reported in the world literature. A case of soft tissue myoepithelial tumor with benign histomorphology, but with an invasive growth pattern, occurred in the masticator space of a 46-year- old male patient. magnetic resonance imaging of paranasal sinus/nasopharynx revealed a well-defined, lobulated heterogeneous mass with high signal intensity and dense calcification in the masticator space between the left mandible ramus and pterygoid process. Grossly, the tumor was a well- circumscribed ovoid solid mass and consisted of yellowish gray glistening firm tissue. Histologically, the tumor showed a multinodular growth pattern and consisted of epithelioid cells in chondromyxoid stroma and of spindle-shaped to ovoid cells in the hyaline stroma. The tumor cells appeared bland, and no mitosis or necrosis was found within the tumor. The tumor focally invaded to adhered bone tissue. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle actin, but negative for other epithelial markers. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm of the tumor cells contained sparse microfilaments and subplasmalemmal densities. Attenuated desmosomes were commonly seen between the tumor cells. ( info)

5/6. Orofacial pain: diagnosis and treatment.

    Orofacial pain can have an inflammatory, neurologic or musculoskeletal cause. Inflammatory diseases include dental abscess, sinusitis, temporal arteritis, sialolithiasis and infections of the parotid gland. Common neurologic diseases that cause facial pain are trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, paratrigeminal neuralgia and cluster headaches. Musculoskeletal causes include temporomandibular joint syndrome and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. A clear understanding of pertinent anatomy and an organized approach to diagnosis will facilitate the evaluation of patients with orofacial pain. ( info)

6/6. histoplasmosis: the otolaryngologist's perspective.

    Within the upper aerodigestive tract, histoplasmosis often mimics carcinoma, making prompt and accurate diagnosis imperative. More severe and potentially lethal infections with histoplasma capsulatum are now being seen as the numbers of patients at the extremes of age, as well as those with compromised immune systems, increase. We reviewed the cases of 115 hospitalized patients with disseminated histoplasmosis. Of these, 9 patients were identified with otolaryngologic manifestations: 4 were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), 1 was diabetic, and 3 were renal transplant patients. Sites of involvement included the larynx (in 2 cases) and the oral cavity and oral pharynx (in 7 cases). Eight of the 9 patients had a positive biopsy result; the other, a positive culture. Treatment with amphotericin b was generally effective, while the use of newer azole anti-fungal agents were less effective. As the number of immunocompromised patients continues to increase in modern clinical practice, histoplasmosis will undoubtedly be encountered more frequently in the head and neck area. ( info)

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