Cases reported "Strabismus"

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1/328. Biofeedback reinforcement in the training of limitation of gaze: a case report.

    A 22-year-old patient having a history of congenital strabismus with surgery at age 6 and again at age 14 suffered from a limitation of dextroversion following 2 surgical procedures with diplopia initially experienced beyond 18 degrees. Ten sessions of treatment by traditional visual training methods and biofeedback reinforcement were compared in extending the deficient range of dextroversion. Biofeedback was found to be significantly better than conventional approaches in this treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = strabismus
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2/328. Atypical vertical retraction syndrome: a case study.

    A case of unilateral retraction of the eyeball in downward gaze as well as downshoot with the retraction when an outward horizontal movement of the contralateral eye was attempted has been introduced. The case has an exotropia with inability to adduct involved eye. The face turned to the left to minimize diplopia in the primary position. During the retraction, the lid widened slightly. An analyses by electrooculography and electromyography suggested that there was an abnormal neural connection between the vertical recti of the involved eye and the contralateral lateral rectus muscle. Co-contraction of vertical recti and loss of the reciprocal innervation were seen at the involved eye. Surgical treatment for exotropia, and total transplantation of vertical recti to the insertion of the involved medial rectus resulted in a slight reduction of the exotropia with the face straight, but not in the retraction as well as adduction and elevation of the involved eye. Based on the results, a central mechanism to produce above abnormality was described.
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ranking = 0.080418667402424
keywords = exotropia
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3/328. Adverse response to prism therapy in strabismus.

    The recent literature on prism therapy in strabismus is reviewed. A case is reported in which an esotrope, treated by means of prism neutralization to effect sensory orthotropia, responded with a marked increase in the angle of squint. Guidelines are suggested to minimize risk of such adverse effect when prism therapy is attempted.
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ranking = 5
keywords = strabismus
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4/328. Anterior segment ischemia and sector iris atrophy: after strabismus surgery in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    A 69-year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed segmental iris atrophy and iridocyclitis after routine surgery for exotropia. Both the clinical picture and fluorescein angiogram indicated anterior segment ischemia. It is postulated that this was related to hyperviscosity of the blood caused by a high white blood cell count (114,000/cu mm). The possibility of anterior segment ischemia should be kept in mind when contemplating strabismus or retinal detachment surgery in the presence of hematologic disorders likely to increase blood viscosity. In these cases a minimal amount of surgery should be done with proper supportive therapy. strabismus surgery should be done in stages allowing for hemodynamic compensation between procedures.
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ranking = 5.0268062224675
keywords = strabismus, exotropia
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5/328. Multiple systemic and periocular malformations associated with the fetal hydantoin syndrome.

    anticonvulsants remain necessary during pregnancy and the removal of such drugs is not recommended. However, on the available evidence, the physician may expect an increased risk of malformation including eye abnormalities as has been outlined. The abnormalities include growth deficiencies and delayed motor/mental development together with dysmorphic features, the most common of which seems to be cleft lip/cleft palate. Additionally, many of these children suffer from eye abnormalities including hypertelorism, ptosis, strabismus, epicanthal folds, and in this case abnormalities of the lacrimal apparatus.
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ranking = 1
keywords = strabismus
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6/328. rhabdomyolysis in association with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of rhabdomyolysis which developed in a child with a known history of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, following an anesthetic which included sevoflurane. CLINICAL FEATURES: An 11 yr old boy with a known history of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy underwent anesthesia for strabismus repair. The anesthetic consisted of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide without the use of a muscle relaxant. His postoperative course was complicated by a complaint of heel pain and the development of myoglobinuria. He was treated with dantrolene sodium and discharged home after two days, without further complication. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane anesthesia has not been shown previously to be associated with the development of acute rhabdomyolysis in a child with a history of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. As with halothane and isoflurane, the continued use of sevoflurane in the presence of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy should be questioned.
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ranking = 1
keywords = strabismus
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7/328. diplopia secondary to aniseikonia associated with macular disease.

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an explanation for diplopia and the inability to fuse in some patients with macular disease. methods: We identified 7 patients from our practices who had binocular diplopia concurrent with epiretinal membranes or vitreomacular traction. A review of the medical records of all patients was performed. In addition to complete ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, evaluation of aniseikonia using the Awaya New aniseikonia Tests (Handaya Co Ltd, tokyo, japan) was performed on all patients. RESULTS: All patients were referred for troublesome diplopia. Six of the patients had epiretinal membranes and 1 had vitreomacular traction. All 7 patients had aniseikonia, ranging from 5% to 18%. In 5 of the patients the image in the involved eye was larger, and in the other 2 patients it was smaller than in the fellow eye. All patients had concomitant small-angle strabismus and at least initially did not fuse when the deviation was offset with a prism. Response to optical management and retinal surgery was variable. CONCLUSIONS: aniseikonia caused by separation or compression of photoreceptors can be a contributing factor to the existence of diplopia and the inability to fuse in patients with macular disease. Concomitant small-angle strabismus and the inability to fuse with prisms may lead the clinician to the incorrect diagnosis of central disruption of fusion. Surgical intervention does not necessarily improve the aniseikonia.
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ranking = 2
keywords = strabismus
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8/328. heart block following propofol in a child.

    We present the case of a nine-year-old boy afflicted with Ondine's curse, who developed complete atrioventricular heart block after a single bolus of propofol for induction of anaesthesia for strabismus surgery. Ondine's curse, the other name for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, is characterized by a generalized disorder of autonomic function. propofol has no effect on the normal atrioventricular conduction system in humans but it reduces sympathetic activity and can highly potentiate other vagal stimulation factors. heart block has been documented after propofol bolus use in adults but, to our knowledge, not in children. It would appear that propofol is not a good choice for anaesthesia in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = strabismus
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9/328. Clinical features of congenital absence of the superior oblique muscle as demonstrated by orbital imaging.

    INTRODUCTION: Absence of an extraocular muscle was considered rare when demonstrable only by surgical exploration or necropsy. This study presents advances in orbital imaging to correlate clinical findings with absence of the superior oblique (SO) muscle. methods: We performed high-resolution coronal orbital imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (222 orbits) or computerized radiographic tomography (32 orbits) in 127 patients with strabismus. We reviewed the histories and ocular motility examinations in patients who had absence of 1 or both SO muscles. Findings were compared with patients who were clinically diagnosed with SO palsy but had demonstrable SO muscles on orbital imaging. RESULTS: SO muscles were absent in 6 patients. All had histories suggesting congenital strabismus. In patients old enough for quantitative testing who had unilateral SO muscle absence, visual acuity was a least 20/25 in all and stereopsis was better than 80 arc/s in one. Three patients were orthotropic in primary position. Five patients with unilateral SO muscle absence had clinical findings variably consistent with SO palsy, whereas a sixth patient with Duane syndrome had clinically unsuspected bilateral SO muscle absence. Versions and patterns of hypertropia in patients with SO muscle absence overlapped findings of 20 patients with SO palsy but demonstrable SO muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Imaging can frequently demonstrate absence of the SO muscle in patients with SO palsy. Such patients may have good vision and stereopsis and clinical findings indistinguishable from SO palsy without absence of the SO muscle. Orbital imaging should be considered in the evaluation of congenital SO palsy to facilitate planning of effective surgical correction.
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ranking = 2
keywords = strabismus
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10/328. The Lancaster red-green test before and after occlusion in the evaluation of incomitant strabismus.

    BACKGROUND: patients with incomitant strabismus can often fuse in a limited area of gaze. Prolongation of neurologically learned fusional vergence tone ("vergence adaptation") in and near this area can result in misleading measurements with standard clinical measures of strabismus. Monocular occlusion for at least 30 minutes eliminates most of the effect of vergence adaptation. The Lancaster red-green test provides an elegant and convenient map of incomitant strabismus. We investigated the efficacy of the Lancaster red-green test before and after monocular occlusion for the investigation of incomitant strabismus. methods: We retrospectively studied the results of the Lancaster red-green test in 6 patients with incomitant vertical strabismus in whom we suspected that vergence adaptation might be distorting the pattern of deviation. The test was performed before and after monocular occlusion for 30 to 60 minutes, and the preocclusion and postocclusion results were compared. RESULTS: In the 6 cases studied, the Lancaster red-green test showed at least a 5-PD increase in the hyperdeviation, after monocular occlusion. The increases were mostly in primary gaze and downgaze, which tended to regularize the pattern of deviation. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of monocular occlusion and the Lancaster red-green test is useful for uncovering the effect of vergence adaptation. Such results may often simplify the planning of surgical correction because the incomitance usually decreases after monocular occlusion, making it less likely that surgery will worsen the alignment in the area previously fused. We recommend that monocular occlusion should be considered when planning surgery or even prism correction for incomitant deviations, especially when the initial Lancaster red-green test shows an unexpected incomitant pattern where there is fusion in 1 direction of gaze but not in others.
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ranking = 9
keywords = strabismus
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