Cases reported "Strabismus"

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1/99. Fourth cranial nerve palsy in pediatric patients with pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To describe three children with acute fourth cranial nerve palsy secondary to pseudotumor cerebri. methods: We reviewed the medical records of children younger than 18 years who were diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri between 1977 and 1997. pseudotumor cerebri was defined by normal neuro-imaging, elevated intracranial pressure measured by lumbar puncture, and normal cerebrospinal fluid composition. RESULTS: Three children with pseudotumor cerebri presented with vertical diplopia and clinical signs of fourth cranial nerve palsy including a hypertropia of the affected eye, which increased with adduction and ipsilateral head tilt. The fourth cranial nerve palsy resolved after reduction of the intracranial pressure in all three children. CONCLUSIONS: Fourth cranial nerve palsy may occur in children with pseudotumor cerebri and may be a nonspecific sign of elevated intracranial pressure.
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2/99. Tonic ocular tilt reaction simulating a superior oblique palsy: diagnostic confusion with the 3-step test.

    BACKGROUND: The tonic ocular tilt reaction (OTR) consists of vertical divergence of the eyes (skew deviation), bilateral conjugate ocular torsion, and paradoxical head tilt. The head and superior pole of both eyes are rotated toward the hypotropic eye. OBJECTIVE: To describe ocular motility and torsion findings in 5 patients with OTRs that mimicked superior oblique palsies (SOPs). RESULTS: In 5 patients, results of the 3-step test suggested an SOP (bilateral in 1 patient); however, no patient had the expected excyclotorsion of the hypertropic eye. Two patients had conjugate ocular torsion (intorsion of the hypertropic eye and extorsion of the hypotropic eye), and 2 patients had only intorsion of the hypertropic eye. All had other neurologic features consistent with more widespread brainstem disease. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical ocular deviations that 3-step to an SOP are not always caused by fourth nerve weakness. When a patient with an apparent fourth nerve palsy has ocular torsion that is inconsistent with an SOP, OTR should be suspected, especially if vestibular system or posterior fossa dysfunction coexists. The rules for the 3-step test for an SOP may be fulfilled by damaging the otolithic projections corresponding to projections of the contralateral anterior semicircular canal. Because results of the Bielschowsky head tilt test may be positive in patients with the OTR, the feature distinguishing OTR from an SOP is the direction of torsion. We advocate use of a fourth step-evaluation of ocular torsion-in addition to the standard 3 steps.
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keywords = vertical
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3/99. Atypical vertical retraction syndrome: a case study.

    A case of unilateral retraction of the eyeball in downward gaze as well as downshoot with the retraction when an outward horizontal movement of the contralateral eye was attempted has been introduced. The case has an exotropia with inability to adduct involved eye. The face turned to the left to minimize diplopia in the primary position. During the retraction, the lid widened slightly. An analyses by electrooculography and electromyography suggested that there was an abnormal neural connection between the vertical recti of the involved eye and the contralateral lateral rectus muscle. Co-contraction of vertical recti and loss of the reciprocal innervation were seen at the involved eye. Surgical treatment for exotropia, and total transplantation of vertical recti to the insertion of the involved medial rectus resulted in a slight reduction of the exotropia with the face straight, but not in the retraction as well as adduction and elevation of the involved eye. Based on the results, a central mechanism to produce above abnormality was described.
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keywords = vertical
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4/99. The Lancaster red-green test before and after occlusion in the evaluation of incomitant strabismus.

    BACKGROUND: patients with incomitant strabismus can often fuse in a limited area of gaze. Prolongation of neurologically learned fusional vergence tone ("vergence adaptation") in and near this area can result in misleading measurements with standard clinical measures of strabismus. Monocular occlusion for at least 30 minutes eliminates most of the effect of vergence adaptation. The Lancaster red-green test provides an elegant and convenient map of incomitant strabismus. We investigated the efficacy of the Lancaster red-green test before and after monocular occlusion for the investigation of incomitant strabismus. methods: We retrospectively studied the results of the Lancaster red-green test in 6 patients with incomitant vertical strabismus in whom we suspected that vergence adaptation might be distorting the pattern of deviation. The test was performed before and after monocular occlusion for 30 to 60 minutes, and the preocclusion and postocclusion results were compared. RESULTS: In the 6 cases studied, the Lancaster red-green test showed at least a 5-PD increase in the hyperdeviation, after monocular occlusion. The increases were mostly in primary gaze and downgaze, which tended to regularize the pattern of deviation. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of monocular occlusion and the Lancaster red-green test is useful for uncovering the effect of vergence adaptation. Such results may often simplify the planning of surgical correction because the incomitance usually decreases after monocular occlusion, making it less likely that surgery will worsen the alignment in the area previously fused. We recommend that monocular occlusion should be considered when planning surgery or even prism correction for incomitant deviations, especially when the initial Lancaster red-green test shows an unexpected incomitant pattern where there is fusion in 1 direction of gaze but not in others.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vertical
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5/99. Decompensated strabismus after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    We present a case of decompensated nerve IV palsy with vertical diplopia afer bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis. As the patient was given monovision, we believe diplopia occurred with a decrease in vision in 1 eye and interruption of fusion. Although corrective spectacles to restore equal vision at distance were prescribes, the patient needed a prism to eliminate her double vision. We suggest a careful cover/uncover test and versions assessment in all candidates for refractive surgery who want monovision correction and a full ocular motility evaluation if there is any doubt about binocular issues.
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keywords = vertical
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6/99. The role of restricted motility in determining outcomes for vertical strabismus surgery in Graves' ophthalmology.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors predictive of operative success or failure for vertical muscle surgery performed in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. DESIGN: Prospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one consecutive patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy who demonstrated vertical ocular motor imbalance, with or without simultaneous horizontal muscle imbalance. INTERVENTION: Vertical extraocular muscle surgery performed either in isolation or in association with horizontal muscle surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Vertical limitations of extraocular muscles were correlated with preoperative hypertropia. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the significant predictors of postoperative hypertropia in primary gaze. Logistic analysis was used to estimate the probability of surgical failure (>5 diopters) on the basis of preoperative parameters. RESULTS: The amount of preoperative hypertropia was negatively correlated with total restriction of vertical ductions (r = -0.52, P < 0.01). Preoperative hypertropia was positively correlated with asymmetry in muscle restriction between the two eyes (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001). The best predictor of preoperative hypertropia was the difference between restriction of the contralateral opposing recti, namely the right superior rectus, and the left inferior rectus, as well as the right inferior rectus and the left superior rectus (r = 0.74, P < 0.0001). Restriction of the contralateral opposing recti was also the most significant predictor of surgical success (postoperative hypertropia < 5 prism diopters). CONCLUSIONS: Surgery tailored to address restriction of ductions, specifically the difference between contralateral opposing recti, is likely to improve the success of initial surgery beyond that based primarily on the magnitude of the vertical deviation.
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ranking = 8
keywords = vertical
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7/99. Anterior segment ischemia and retinal detachment after vertical rectus muscle surgery.

    PURPOSE: The authors describe the clinical course of a woman who developed two complications following vertical strabismus repair: anterior segment ischemia (ASI) and retinal detachment. methods: A 62 year-old woman is described. She presented with new onset proptosis and left hypertropia with significant diplopia in all fields of gaze. This presentation, her 15 year history of thyroid disease, and preoperative computed tomography (CT) of the orbits were consistent with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Vertical strabismus repair was carried out by recessing the left superior rectus muscle and resecting the left inferior rectus muscle. RESULTS: The diplopia was eliminated. The patient developed significant postoperative ASI and iatrogenic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the left eye due to unsuspected globe perforation. She was treated with systemic corticosteroids and radial scleral buckling. CONCLUSIONS: Severe ASI following strabismus surgery is a well recognized complication, with age, thyroid ophthalmopathy, and manipulation of the vertical rectus muscles as risk factors. The retinal detachment soon after strabismus surgery was difficult to detect, possibly due to diminished visualization of the posterior segment as a result of ASI.
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ranking = 6
keywords = vertical
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8/99. strabismus fixus divergens and associated craniofacial anomalies.

    A case of congenital strabismus fixus divergens is described. Other anomalies were vertically oval corneas, high mixed astigmatism, amblyopia, horizontal nystagmus, microcephaly, maxillary hypoplasia, micrognathia, low set large ears, and hyperostosis frontalis interna.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vertical
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9/99. Large Bielschowsky head-tilt phenomenon and inconspicuous vertical deviation in the diagnostic positions in congenital superior oblique palsy.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of congenital superior oblique palsy with an unusually large Bielschowsky head-tilt phenomenon (BHP) and disproportional inconspicuous vertical deviation. methods: Case report. RESULTS: An 18-year-old woman presented with slight compensatory head tilting and a Bielschowsky head-tilt phenomenon of 50 Delta on left tilting. magnetic resonance imaging revealed atrophy of the left superior oblique muscle. A Hess screen test showed a slight underaction of the left superior oblique muscle, but neither an obvious overaction of the ipsilateral inferior oblique muscle nor inhibitory palsy of the contralateral superior rectus muscle was found. With a 3-mm recession of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle, Bielschowsky head-tilt phenomenon decreased to 25 Delta. CONCLUSION: A large Bielschowsky head-tilt phenomenon was possibly caused by an increased gain of the otolith-ocular reflex affecting the vertical rectus muscle.
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ranking = 6
keywords = vertical
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10/99. Correction of cyclovertical strabismus induced by limited macular translocation in a case of age-related macular degeneration.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of strabismus surgery performed to treat cyclovertical strabismus induced by limited macular translocation. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 62-year-old man suffering with age-related macular degeneration and subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, RE, underwent limited macular translocation surgery. The fovea was rotated downward, and his visual acuity improved from 20/100 to 20/25 postoperatively. Cyclovertical diplopia persisted for 6 months after the operation. A Hess screen test revealed a pattern that simulated an underaction of the superior oblique muscle and inferior rectus muscle with an overaction of the ipsilateral inferior oblique muscle. To treat the diplopia, advancement of the superior oblique muscle tendon and resection of the ipsilateral inferior rectus muscle were performed. Binocular single vision with 140 seconds of arc for stereopsis was obtained. CONCLUSION: Cyclovertical strabismus after limited macular translocation is corrective with conventional surgery on the treated eye.
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ranking = 7
keywords = vertical
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