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1/3. Vertex epidural hematoma with communicating bifrontal subgaleal hematomas treated by percutaneous needle aspiration.

    The case of an 11-year-old boy is presented who suffered a bicycle accident with a parasagittal skull fracture, a small vertex epidural hematoma, frontal contusions and a frontal subgaleal hematoma. Enlargement of the vertex epidural hematoma was diagnosed after development of a slight paraparesis on day 11 with the aid of MRI. Three percutaneous needle aspirations of the subgaleal hematoma with a total of 59 ml being evacuated led to quick recovery and disappearance of the subgaleal as well as the vertex epidural hematoma. It is speculated that both hematomas communicated via the skull fracture thus making the evacuation of the epidural hematoma by subgaleal punctures possible.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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2/3. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and extracranial vertebral artery injury: a case report and review of the literature.

    The case is presented of a 19-year-old man who was assaulted and died shortly afterward from a large traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) that arose from rupture of the left vertebral artery, proximal to the point at which the artery penetrated the dura. The literature regarding TBSAH and vertebral artery rupture is reviewed, and a number of points are highlighted: patients with TBSAH may remain conscious for a period of hours after injury, subcutaneous or muscular bruising may be contralateral to the ruptured vessel, fractures of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and significant pathology of the vertebral artery are not typically associated with TBSAH, and rupture of the vertebral artery may be intracranial, junctional, or extracranial.
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ranking = 0.0054435909827844
keywords = fracture
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3/3. Early combined cranioplasty and programmable shunt in patients with skull bone defects and CSF-circulation disorders.

    OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the clinical outcome after early combined cranioplasty (own frozen bone) and shunt implantation (Codman-Medos programmable VP shunt) in patients with skull bone defects and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disorders.METHOD: medical records were reviewed retrospectively for the last 100 patients with CSF disorders after trauma or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), who previously underwent decompressive craniotomy owing to therapy-resistant brain swelling. patients treated with early (5 to 7 weeks after injury) combined cranioplasty and shunt implantation were analysed and a follow-up for the survivors was obtained.RESULTS: In 60 patients with a daily CSF external drainage over 150 ml and dilated ventricles in CT scan, a programmable VP shunt was implanted simultaneously with the cranioplasty within 5.1 weeks after decompression. The neurological condition 6 months later was good (independent patients) in 39 cases (65%); 12 patients (20%) survived with a severe disability; three patients (5%) remained in a persistent vegetative state and only six patients (10%) died. There were few complications: bone or shunt infection (three cases), post-operative intracranial bleeding (one case), transitory neurological impairment after bone reimplantation (two cases), bone resorption (two cases) and shunt dysfunction (three cases).CONCLUSION: The early reimplantation of the patient's own skull bone combined to the employment of a programmable shunt system allowed us a dynamic adjustment of the intracranial pressure (ICP) changes. The combined treatment reduced the number of required surgical procedures, complications and unsatisfactory patient outcomes.
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ranking = 0.015062460422819
keywords = skull
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