Cases reported "Subarachnoid Hemorrhage"

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1/730. Embolic bacterial aneurysm of the basilar artery: case report.

    A patient with basilar artery rupture caused by a septic embolus originating from a mitral valve vegetation is reported. The pathogenesis, investigation and management of infected cerebral aneurysms are reviewed.
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2/730. Giant fusiform aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery: successful Hunterian ligation without distal bypass.

    Giant fusiform aneurysm is a rare vascular lesion which presents difficult management issues. We describe one such aneurysm in a middle cerebral artery branch (M2) that presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage and was managed operatively. Clinical, radiological and pathological presentations, as well as the different treatment options for this type of aneurysm are discussed based on a literature review. A satisfactory results in an M2 giant fusiform aneurysm can be achieved with Hunterian ligation of the parent vessel even when a distal EC-IC bypass is not possible.
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3/730. Intra-arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride for treating vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    In this pilot study we treated cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage to assess intra-arterial fasudil hydrochloride. We analysed effects of intra-arterial infusion on angiographically evident cerebral vasospasm in 10 patients including 3 with symptoms of vasospasm. Over 10 to 30 min 15 to 60 mg was administered via the proximal internal carotid artery or vertebral artery following standard angiography, without superselective techniques. A total of 24 arterial territories (21 internal carotid, 3 vertebral) were treated. Angiographic improvement of vasospasm was demonstrated in 16 arterial territories (local dilation in 2, diffuse dilation in 14) in 9 patients. In 2 symptomatic patients, intra-arterial fasudil hydrochloride was associated with resolution of symptoms without sequelae. In the third symptomatic patient the benefit of fasudil hydrochloride was only temporary, and a large cerebral infarction occurred. All asymptomatic patients showed no progression of angiographic to symptomatic vasospasm after treatment with intra-arterial fasudil hydrochloride. No adverse effect was encountered.
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ranking = 3
keywords = cerebral
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4/730. Clinical evaluation of the effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and intra-arterial papaverine infusion for the treatment of vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    The clinical efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and intra-arterial papaverine infusion for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage was investigated. Between 1990 and 1993, 84 patients were treated for cerebral vasospasm in National Defense Medical College Hospital. angioplasty was performed for asymptomatic vasospasm in 18 patients and for symptomatic vasospasm in 12 patients. Intra-arterial papaverine infusion was performed for asymptomatic vasospasm in 10 patients and for symptomatic vasospasm in four patients. The other 40 patients were treated with standard conservative therapy including hypervolemic and hypertensive hemodilution. The outcomes of these patients were analyzed using the glasgow outcome scale. The outcome tended to be better for patients treated with angioplasty, but not for those treated with papaverine infusion, than for those treated conservatively. recurrence of vasospasm was more frequent after papaverine infusion than after angioplasty. Undesirable complications such as abrupt development of unconsciousness were experienced during papaverine infusion but not during angioplasty. We conclude that percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is superior to intra-arterial papaverine infusion for prevention and treatment of vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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5/730. Bedside-microdialysis for early detection of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case report and review of the literature.

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral metabolism would be desirable for early detection of vasospasm in SAH patients. Bedside-microdialysis, a new technique for on-line monitoring of cerebral metabolism, may reflect changes seen in cerebral vasospasm diagnosed by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). This report represents the first case of combined TCD monitoring and on-line microdialysis from the brain extracellular fluid in a SAH patient. A 48-year-old woman suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage grade IV according to Hunt and Hess. angiography revealed an aneurysm of the left carotid artery. The aneurysm was clipped 45 hours after bleeding. The microdialysis catheter was inserted after aneurysm clipping into the white matter of the left temporal lobe. Sampling of microdialysates started immediately, analyzing time for glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glutamate was four minutes. Postoperatively, the patient was doing well and microdialysis and TCD parameters remained within normal range. On the third postoperative day a shift to anaerob metabolism (decrease of glucose, increase of lactate and the lactate-pyruvate ratio up to pathological levels) and an increase in glutamate was observed suggesting insufficient cerebral perfusion. The patient progressively deteriorated clinically. Vasospasm was diagnosed by TCD monitoring 36 hours after onset of ischemic changes monitored by microdialysis. After elevation of mean arterial blood pressure, TCD values and metabolic parameters normalized. Interestingly, the pathological changes in on-line microdialysis preceded the typical increase in blood flow velocity by TCD and the clinical deterioration. Our case suggests, that bedside-microdialysis may be useful for early detection of vasospasm and continuous surveillance of treatment and may be a new guide to treat ischemic neurological deficits following SAH.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cerebral
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6/730. subarachnoid hemorrhage due to septic embolic infarction in infective endocarditis.

    During antibiotic therapy, a 56-year-old man with a streptococcus bovis endocarditis developed an infarction of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Thirty hours after stroke onset, cranial computed tomography controls demonstrated a secondary subarachnoid hemorrhage, marked in the cistern of the right MCA. The latent period, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, angiographic and pathologic findings favor the assumption of a pyogenic arterial wall necrosis of the MCA due to a septic embolus. This pathomechanism of intracranial hemorrhage in infective endocarditis should be distinguished from a rupture of a mycotic aneurysm.
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keywords = cerebral
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7/730. Intraoperative use of nitric oxide during intracranial aneurysm clipping in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    We describe a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cerebral vasospasm. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) was used to improve oxygenation, thereby facilitating cerebral aneurysm clipping.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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8/730. Angioarchitecture related to hemorrhage in cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the angioarchitecture related to hemorrhage in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), who underwent conservative treatment and long-term follow-up. The average observation period was 9.3 years, and the annual bleeding rate was estimated at 3.6%. In all cases angiographic findings were reviewed in detail. The average AVM grade by Spetzler-Martin was 3.5. Higher bleeding rate was observed in large AVM (5.4%) compared with small (2.1%) or medium AVM (2.9%). Deep venous drainage (8.6%/year) was strongly correlated to hemorrhage. Concerning location of nidus, hemorrhage was frequently found in insular, callosal, and cerebellar AVMs. Venous ectasia, feeder aneurysm, and external carotid supply were commonly demonstrated on angiograms. Comparison of annual bleeding rate revealed that AVMs with intranidal aneurysm (8.5%) and venous stenosis (5.5%) had a high propensity to hemorrhage. Therapeutic strategy should be focused on these potentially hazardous lesions by the use of endovascular embolization or stereotactic radiosurgery, even if surgical resection is not indicated.
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ranking = 5
keywords = cerebral
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9/730. Carotid ligation for carotid aneurysms.

    Thirty patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to rupture of a carotid aneurysm were treated by ligation of the common carotid artery. Two patients died as a result of the procedure, two patients developed persisting hemisphere deficit. Eight of the ten patients who developed cerebral ischemia after the operation were operated within ten days after the bleeding. At present out aim is to guide the patient safely through the first ten days after his haemorrhage and perform ligation at the end of the second week. After a follow up period of 1-8 years recurrent haemorrhage did not occur. Common carotid ligation, preferably with control of carotid artery end pressure, cerebral blood-flow and EEG is considered to be a valuable method to treat ruptured intracranial carotid aneurysm.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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10/730. subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial dissecting aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Two case reports.

    Two rare cases of intracranial dissecting aneurysms of the anterior circulation associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are described. A 56-year-old female presented with a dissecting aneurysm in the proximal segment of the left middle cerebral artery. Proximal occlusion of the affected artery and a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis were performed, but the outcome was poor. A 61-year-old male presented with a dissecting aneurysm in the proximal segment of the left anterior cerebral artery. Clipping was enhanced by a piece of fascia lata, allowing patency of the affected artery with a satisfactory outcome. Dissecting aneurysm of the carotid system should be considered in a patient with SAH but no evidence of berry aneurysm.
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ranking = 3
keywords = cerebral
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