Cases reported "Subarachnoid Hemorrhage"

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1/278. Giant fusiform aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery: successful Hunterian ligation without distal bypass.

    Giant fusiform aneurysm is a rare vascular lesion which presents difficult management issues. We describe one such aneurysm in a middle cerebral artery branch (M2) that presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage and was managed operatively. Clinical, radiological and pathological presentations, as well as the different treatment options for this type of aneurysm are discussed based on a literature review. A satisfactory results in an M2 giant fusiform aneurysm can be achieved with Hunterian ligation of the parent vessel even when a distal EC-IC bypass is not possible.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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2/278. Intra-arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride for treating vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    In this pilot study we treated cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage to assess intra-arterial fasudil hydrochloride. We analysed effects of intra-arterial infusion on angiographically evident cerebral vasospasm in 10 patients including 3 with symptoms of vasospasm. Over 10 to 30 min 15 to 60 mg was administered via the proximal internal carotid artery or vertebral artery following standard angiography, without superselective techniques. A total of 24 arterial territories (21 internal carotid, 3 vertebral) were treated. Angiographic improvement of vasospasm was demonstrated in 16 arterial territories (local dilation in 2, diffuse dilation in 14) in 9 patients. In 2 symptomatic patients, intra-arterial fasudil hydrochloride was associated with resolution of symptoms without sequelae. In the third symptomatic patient the benefit of fasudil hydrochloride was only temporary, and a large cerebral infarction occurred. All asymptomatic patients showed no progression of angiographic to symptomatic vasospasm after treatment with intra-arterial fasudil hydrochloride. No adverse effect was encountered.
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ranking = 5
keywords = haemorrhage
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3/278. Anaesthetic management of a woman who became paraplegic at 22 weeks' gestation after a spontaneous spinal cord haemorrhage secondary to a presumed arteriovenous malformation.

    A 19-yr-old woman developed a paraplegia with a T10 sensory level at 22 weeks' gestation. The spinal injury was caused by spontaneous bleed of a presumed arteriovenous malformation in the spinal cord. She presented for Caesarean section at term because of the breech position of her fetus. The successful use of a combined spinal epidural-regional anaesthetic is described and the risks of general and regional anaesthesia are discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = haemorrhage
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4/278. Carotid ligation for carotid aneurysms.

    Thirty patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to rupture of a carotid aneurysm were treated by ligation of the common carotid artery. Two patients died as a result of the procedure, two patients developed persisting hemisphere deficit. Eight of the ten patients who developed cerebral ischemia after the operation were operated within ten days after the bleeding. At present out aim is to guide the patient safely through the first ten days after his haemorrhage and perform ligation at the end of the second week. After a follow up period of 1-8 years recurrent haemorrhage did not occur. Common carotid ligation, preferably with control of carotid artery end pressure, cerebral blood-flow and EEG is considered to be a valuable method to treat ruptured intracranial carotid aneurysm.
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ranking = 3
keywords = haemorrhage
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5/278. Subarachnoid haemorrhage: difficulties in diagnosis and treatment.

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is associated with a uniquely severe headache of acute onset. Classical cases are readily identified as such, although this is not always the case. Four cases who were admitted to a district general hospital within a 3-month period are presented, because they demonstrate a variety of presentations, management options, and outcomes.
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ranking = 5
keywords = haemorrhage
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6/278. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae: endovascular treatment with transvenous coil embolisation.

    Tentorial arteriovenous dural fistulae are uncommon. They are aggressive lesions: of all intracranial dural fistulae they are the most likely to present with haemorrhage. Treatment options include surgical excision or interruption of leptomeningeal draining veins and arterial embolisation in isolation or in combination with surgery. There has been one case report of treatment by percutaneous transvenous coil embolisation. We describe successful transvenous coil embolisation of two tentorial dural fistulae presenting with subarachnoid haemorrhage.
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ranking = 2
keywords = haemorrhage
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7/278. Systemic lupus erythematosus, berry aneurysm and subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    A 57-year-old woman with SLE and subarachnoid haemorrhage is described. The aetiology of the haemorrhage was a saccular aneurysm. The literature is reviewed.
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ranking = 6
keywords = haemorrhage
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8/278. moyamoya disease of adult onset brain stem haemorrhage associated with bilateral occlusion of the vertebral arteries--case report.

    An unusual and first case of moyamoya disease of adult onset brain stem haemorrhage associated with occlusion of both vertebral arteries is reported. A 30-year-old man suddenly suffered from dyspnea, dysphagia, and left-sided hemisensory disturbance. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a fresh haematoma in the left medulla oblongata and various-sized old infarcts in both parietal lobes. Cerebral angiograms disclosed occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries on both sides at their intracranial portion, accompanied with the developed basal moyamoya vessels. The right vertebral artery occluded at its V2-V3 segment, in which the posterior inferior cerebellar artery was opacified via the posterior spinal artery, and the basilar artery was filled from the anterior spinal artery. The left vertebral artery was also occluded at the craniovertebral junction (V4) with collateral flow. Only one case of moyamoya disease associated with bilateral occlusion of the vertebral artery has been reported previously, and a haemorrhage into the medulla oblongata in moyamoya disease has never been described.
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ranking = 6
keywords = haemorrhage
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9/278. Subarachnoid haemorrhage with transient myocardial injury and normal coronary arteries.

    We present a case of cerebral subarachnoid haemorrhage, with T-wave inversions and myocardial akinesia on echocardiography and ventriculography. Acute coronary angiography showed normal arteries. An aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery was clamped. Echocardiogram was normalized. We discuss coronary spasm as the possible mechanism of myocardial stunning in subarachnoid haemorrhage.
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ranking = 6
keywords = haemorrhage
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10/278. Anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with recent subarachnoid haemorrhage and severe pre-eclampsia.

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage is a leading 'indirect' cause of maternal death in the UK. We describe the case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with headache, photophobia and neck stiffness of sudden onset at 32 weeks' gestation. Cerebral computed tomography demonstrated subarachnoid blood in the cisterns around the midbrain, and oral nimodipine was started to prevent vasospasm. Preparations were made for endovascular coil embolisation in the event of identification of a posterior circulation aneurysm. However, angiography under general anaesthesia failed to reveal any vascular abnormality. On emergence from anaesthesia, headache persisted, and over the next 24 h severe pre-eclampsia developed. magnesium sulphate was started, and urgent Caesarean section performed under general anaesthesia without incident. The rationale for the neuroradiological, obstetric and anaesthetic management is discussed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = haemorrhage
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