Cases reported "Subarachnoid Hemorrhage"

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1/246. Giant fusiform aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery: successful Hunterian ligation without distal bypass.

    Giant fusiform aneurysm is a rare vascular lesion which presents difficult management issues. We describe one such aneurysm in a middle cerebral artery branch (M2) that presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage and was managed operatively. Clinical, radiological and pathological presentations, as well as the different treatment options for this type of aneurysm are discussed based on a literature review. A satisfactory results in an M2 giant fusiform aneurysm can be achieved with Hunterian ligation of the parent vessel even when a distal EC-IC bypass is not possible.
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2/246. Bedside-microdialysis for early detection of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case report and review of the literature.

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral metabolism would be desirable for early detection of vasospasm in SAH patients. Bedside-microdialysis, a new technique for on-line monitoring of cerebral metabolism, may reflect changes seen in cerebral vasospasm diagnosed by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). This report represents the first case of combined TCD monitoring and on-line microdialysis from the brain extracellular fluid in a SAH patient. A 48-year-old woman suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage grade IV according to Hunt and Hess. angiography revealed an aneurysm of the left carotid artery. The aneurysm was clipped 45 hours after bleeding. The microdialysis catheter was inserted after aneurysm clipping into the white matter of the left temporal lobe. Sampling of microdialysates started immediately, analyzing time for glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glutamate was four minutes. Postoperatively, the patient was doing well and microdialysis and TCD parameters remained within normal range. On the third postoperative day a shift to anaerob metabolism (decrease of glucose, increase of lactate and the lactate-pyruvate ratio up to pathological levels) and an increase in glutamate was observed suggesting insufficient cerebral perfusion. The patient progressively deteriorated clinically. Vasospasm was diagnosed by TCD monitoring 36 hours after onset of ischemic changes monitored by microdialysis. After elevation of mean arterial blood pressure, TCD values and metabolic parameters normalized. Interestingly, the pathological changes in on-line microdialysis preceded the typical increase in blood flow velocity by TCD and the clinical deterioration. Our case suggests, that bedside-microdialysis may be useful for early detection of vasospasm and continuous surveillance of treatment and may be a new guide to treat ischemic neurological deficits following SAH.
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3/246. Intraoperative use of nitric oxide during intracranial aneurysm clipping in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    We describe a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cerebral vasospasm. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) was used to improve oxygenation, thereby facilitating cerebral aneurysm clipping.
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4/246. Ventricular thrombus and subarachnoid bleeding during support with ventricular assist devices.

    We report the case of a 23-year-old man with acute aortic valve insufficiency caused by endocarditis, who after emergency aortic valve replacement developed biventricular heart failure. The heart failure was treated with temporary assist devices. Subarachnoid bleeding and thrombus obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract was detected. The postoperative course is presented with special emphasis on management of subarachnoid bleeding and the simultaneous use of anticoagulation necessary for ventricular assist devices.
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5/246. Early rebleeding from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: report of 20 cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECT: In this study the authors sought to estimate the frequency, seriousness, and delay of rebleeding in a homogeneous series of 20 patients whom they treated between May 1987 and May 1997 for arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that were revealed by intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The natural history of intracranial dural AVFs remains obscure. In many studies attempts have been made to evaluate the risk of spontaneous hemorrhage, especially as a function of the pattern of venous drainage: a higher occurrence of bleeding was reported in AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage, with an overall estimated rate of 1.8% per year in the largest series in the literature. However, very few studies have been designed to establish the risk of rebleeding, an omission that the authors seek to remedy. methods: Presenting symptoms in the 20 patients (17 men and three women, mean age 54 years) were acute headache in 12 patients (60%), acute neurological deficit in eight (40%), loss of consciousness in five (25%), and generalized seizures in one (5%). Results of the clinical examination were normal in five patients and demonstrated a neurological deficit in 12 and coma in three. Computerized tomography scanning revealed intracranial bleeding in all cases (15 intraparenchymal hematomas, three subarachnoid hemorrhages, and two subdural hematomas). A diagnosis of AVF was made with the aid of angiographic studies in 19 patients, whereas it was a perioperative discovery in the remaining patient. There were 12 Type III and eight Type IV AVFs according to the revised classification of Djindjian and Merland, which meant that all AVFs in this study had retrograde cortical venous drainage. The mean duration between the first hemorrhage and treatment was 20 days. Seven patients (35%) presented with acute worsening during this delay due to radiologically proven early rebleeding. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in 10 patients, combined embolization and surgery in eight, embolization only in one, and stereotactic radiosurgery in one. Three patients died, one worsened, and in 16 (80%) neurological status improved, with 15 of 16 AVFs totally occluded on repeated angiographic studies (median follow up 10 months). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage present a high risk of early rebleeding (35% within 2 weeks after the first hemorrhage), with graver consequences than the first hemorrhage. They therefore advocate complete and early treatment in all cases of AVF with cortical venous drainage revealed by an ICH.
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6/246. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Case report.

    In recent years, endoscopic third ventriculostomy has become a well-established procedure for the treatment of various forms of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is considered to be an easy and safe procedure. Complications have rarely been reported in the literature. The authors present a case in which the patient suffered a fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. This 63-year-old man presented with confusion and drowsiness and was admitted in to the hospital in poor general condition. Computerized tomography scanning revealed an obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a tumor located in the cerebellopontine angle. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed with the aid of a Fogarty balloon catheter. Some hours postoperatively, the patient became comatose. Computerized tomography scanning revealed a severe perimesencephalic-peripontine SAH and progressive hydrocephalus. Despite emergency external ventricular drainage, the patient died a few hours later. Although endoscopic third ventriculostomy is considered to be a simple and safe procedure, one should be aware that severe and sometimes fatal complications may occur. To avoid vascular injury, perforation of the floor of the third ventricle should be performed in the midline, halfway between the infundibular recess and the mammillary bodies, just behind the dorsum sellae.
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7/246. anesthesia for ruptured cerebral aneurysm surgery associated with chronic renal failure.

    The management of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery has been documented on only a few occasions. We report a 58-year-old man with CRF and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to aneurysm rupture. We describe the patient's perioperative anesthetic management, discussing the current methods for maintaining an appropriate cerebral perfusion pressure and for preventing rehemorrhage from the aneurysm. We suggest that heparin-aided hemodialysis be avoided in these cases.
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8/246. Nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematoma: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    Acute subdural spinal hematoma occurs rarely; however, when it does occur, it may have disastrous consequences. The authors assessed the outcome of surgery for this lesion in relation to causative factors and diagnostic imaging (computerized tomography [CT], CT myelography), as well as eventual preservation of the subarachnoid space. The authors reviewed 106 cases of nontraumatic acute subdural spinal hematoma (101 published cases and five of their own) in terms of cause, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome. Fifty-one patients (49%) were men and 55 (51%) were women. In 70% of patients the spinal segment involved was in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine. In 57 cases (54%) there was a defect in the hemostatic mechanism. spinal puncture was performed in 50 patients (47%). Late surgical treatment was performed in 59 cases (56%): outcome was good in 25 cases (42%) (in 20 of these patients preoperative neurological evaluation had shown mild deficits or paraparesis, and three patients had presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). The outcome was poor in 34 cases (58%; 23 patients with paraplegia and 11 with SAH). The formation of nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematomas may result from coagulation abnormalities and iatrogenic causes such as spinal puncture. Their effect on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots may be limited to a mere compressive mechanism when the subarachnoid space is preserved and the hematoma is confined between the dura and the arachnoid. It seems likely that the theory regarding the opening of the dural compartment, verified at the cerebral level, is applicable to the spinal level too. Early surgical treatment is always indicated when the patient's neurological status progressively deteriorates. The best results can be obtained in patients who do not experience SAH. In a few selected patients in whom neurological impairment is minimal, conservative treatment is possible.
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9/246. Ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm encased in a tuberculum sellae meningioma. Case report.

    This 70-year-old woman suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm encased in a meningioma in the tuberculum sellae. Although preoperative magnetic resonance imaging disclosed that the aneurysmal complex was completely enclosed in the tumor, angiographic studies did not reveal arterial narrowing. The embedded aneurysm caused diffuse SAH rather than intratumoral hemorrhage. These factors indicated very little adhesion between the tumor and the encased arteries. Surgery was performed on the 20th day post-SAH. Intraoperative findings revealed that the tumor did not adhere to the enclosed vasculature except at the point of rupture of the aneurysm. The authors were able to clip the aneurysm safely after piecemeal removal of the tumor, which was finally extirpated without fear of aneurysm rupture. Careful stepwise procedures were essential to treat the aneurysm and the tumor simultaneously.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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10/246. Dissecting aneurysm of basilar artery presenting with recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Spontaneous basilar dissecting aneurysms secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage are rare, usually presenting with ischemia rather than a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 63-year-old man who had SAH repeatedly from a ruptured basilar dissecting aneurysm was treated with endovascular occlusion of the unilateral vertebral artery. Postoperative angiograms 1 month after the procedure showed complete obliteration of the aneurysm. The clinical follow-up at 20 months showed no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage.
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