Cases reported "Subcutaneous Emphysema"

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1/36. subcutaneous emphysema following trans-cricothyroid membrane injection of local anesthetic.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of preoperative subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) as a complication of trans-cricothyroid membrane (TCM) injection of lidocaine for awake intubation. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 48-yr-old man with cervical myelopathy was scheduled for elective cervical discectomy. Airway topical anesthesia consisted of lidocaine pledgets and TCM injection. After successful awake fibreoptic intubation was performed, SCE was noted in the neck region. The main differential diagnosis of preoperative SCE included air leak via the anterior needle track from TCM injection or disruption of mucosal membrane in the aerodigestive tract. The latter was excluded by panendoscopy and an upper GI swallow study. The most likely explanation for SCE was air leak from the anterior needle tract. The subcutaneous emphysema resolved spontaneously without sequella. CONCLUSION: subcutaneous emphysema is a rare but potentially serious complication of TCM injection of lidocaine. Anesthesiologists should be familiar with the differential diagnosis, investigations and management of SCE.
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2/36. subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum after endotracheal anaesthesia.

    INTRODUCTION: We report a case of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum that presented postoperatively after tracheal extubation. CLINICAL PICTURE: A 51-year-old man had an uneventful anaesthesia lasting about 6.5 hours. intubation was performed by a very junior medical officer and was considered difficult. He developed sore throat, chest pain, numbness of both hands and palpable crepitus around the neck postoperatively. Chest X-ray revealed diffuse subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum and possible pneumopericardium. TREATMENT: He was treated conservatively with bed rest, oxygen, analgesia, antibiotic prophylaxis, reassurance and close monitoring. OUTCOME: The patient made an uneventful recovery. CONCLUSIONS: We discussed the possible causes.
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3/36. Cecal perforation presenting as abdominal-wall necrotizing fasciitis.

    The preoperative diagnosis of a cecal perforation associated with salmonella infection as a cause of abdominal-wall necrotizing fasciitis (AWNF) is clinically difficult. Computed tomography of the abdomen is helpful, and can detect the combined presence of a pneumoscrotum and pneumoperitoneum. Its presence indicates a patent processus vaginalis, which acts as the primary route for the spread of the intra-abdominal infectious process into the abdominal wall. An exploratory laparotomy should be done to confirm the presence of intra-abdominal pathology in order to avoid delayed treatment.
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4/36. Epidural emphysema associated with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    A 21-year-old male patient was admitted with spontaneous pneumothorax, and no history of asthma. Closed drainage treatment was unsuccessful. Chest computed tomography demonstrated pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema with multiple air bubbles within the spinal canal between the levels Th3 and Th11. Resection of bullae on the upper lobe and partial pleurectomy were performed. postoperative period was uneventful. Epidural emphysema was resolved spontaneously without neurologic symptoms and signs. Intraspinal air, or pneumorachis, associated with spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum is an extremely rare condition. We discussed spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum as well as epidural pneumatosis and reviewed reported cases in the literature.
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5/36. subcutaneous emphysema after restorative dental treatment.

    subcutaneous emphysema is an uncommon phenomenon in dentistry, usually occurring with the use of air-driven, high-speed handpieces during dental and oral surgery, operative, endodontic, or periodontal treatment. Air is forced into a surgical wound or subepithelial laceration in the oral cavity, dissecting through the different layers of tissue fasciae, and usually creating a unilateral enlargement of the facial and/or submandibular regions. This occurs with or without crepitus, pain, and airway obstruction. Treatment usually consists of antibiotic and mild analgesic therapy, close observation, and reassurance by the attending dentist. Symptoms generally subside in 3 to 10 days; however, consultation with a physician is necessary to rule out further complications.
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ranking = 96.801837202711
keywords = dentistry, operative
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6/36. Bilateral pneumothoraces, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum, and subcutaneous emphysema following intubation with a double-lumen endotracheal tube for thoracoscopic anterior spinal release and fusion in a patient with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Recently, thoracoscopic approaches to the spine have taken on greater clinical applications in the treatment of spinal deformity with generally good results. However, the steep learning curve must be ascended by the surgeon and may lead to complications early in one's experience. There also exists a learning curve for the anesthesiologist to become adept at obtaining single lung ventilation and managing this throughout the operative procedure. We report a case of an 11-year-old patient with severe scoliosis who developed air in both chest cavities, mediastinum, peritoneum, retroperitoneum, and subcutaneous tissue after intubation with a double-lumen endotracheal tube. The patient remained hemodynamically stable throughout this period, and bilateral chest tubes were placed. The patient remained on the ventilator for 24 hours and was extubated without sequelae. Complications from a thoracoscopic approach to the spine for deformity are most often attributed to the learning curve of the surgeon; however, the entire operative team becomes exposed to the challenges of performing this procedure. This report documents a life-threatening complication of air throughout the chest, mediastinum, abdomen, and subcutaneous tissues in a patient with severe scoliosis.
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7/36. pneumorrhachis, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, and pneumoretroperitoneum after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: report of a case.

    This article presents the first known case of pneumorrhachis (spinal air), pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumoretroperitoneum, and subcutaneous emphysema after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. We review the patient's medical history, clinical and laboratory findings, radiographic data, and operative records, as well as the relevant literature. We describe the case of a young male with ulcerative colitis who developed pneumorrhachis, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumoretroperitoneum, pneumomediastinum, and pneumopericardium after a proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Unlike the case we report, previously described episodes of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in patients with ulcerative colitis developed before operative intervention. We offer possible explanations for these unusual complications based on analysis of this case and thorough review of the literature.
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8/36. Massive subcutaneous emphysema and hypercarbia: complications of carbon dioxide absorption during extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal laparoscopic surgery--case studies.

    The laparoscopic approach to surgery is being used with greater frequency as our healthcare system continues to strive for shorter hospital stays and improved postoperative patient recovery times. However, laparoscopy is not without potential complications. This article presents 2 patient case studies. The cases differ in surgical technique. One patient's laparoscopic surgery involved an extraperitoneal approach. The second patient's surgery involved an intraperitoneal approach. Massive subcutaneous emphysema developed in both patients. The phenomenon of subcutaneous emphysema associated with laparoscopic surgery will be defined and discussed.
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9/36. pneumopericardium and subcutaneous emphysema of the neck. An unusual manifestation of colonoscopic perforation.

    Subcutaneous neck emphysema has been reported infrequently following colonoscopic perforation and only a single case of pneumopericardium has been previously reported. The successful management of these patients in the literature has largely been non-operative. We report a case of colonoscopic perforation which presented with subcutaneous neck emphysema, pneumopericardium, and pneumoperitoneum that required operative intervention.
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keywords = operative
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10/36. A severe complication after laser-induced damage to a transtracheal catheter during endoscopic laryngeal microsurgery.

    subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax is a rare and severe complication of percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation, usually caused by obstruction of the upper airway or displacement of the tracheal catheter. Nevertheless, it is our preferred technique for endoscopic laryngeal laser surgery. We report a patient with acute subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax during laser surgery, caused by unobserved laser damage and discuss the associated risk factors. IMPLICATIONS: The percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation for elective laryngeal laser surgery reduces the risk of airway fires and gives a free endoscopic operative field. This case report suggests that, even when using a teflon catheter, laser-induced damage with severe complications might occur.
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