Cases reported "Subcutaneous Emphysema"

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1/401. Surgical emphysema following percutaneous tracheostomy.

    We report two patients in whom a Portex GWDFT was complicated by surgical emphysema. Subsequent examination revealed posterior tracheal wall tears in these patients. The exact aetiology of these tears is unknown, although the tracheostomy tube introducer may have been implicated. We suggest a management plan for this complication. ( info)

2/401. Tension pneumothorax complicating diagnostic upper endoscopy: a case report.

    Hypoxemia is common during various endoscopic procedures and may result from a variety of causes. These causes range from benign and otherwise easily reversible events like oversedation to potentially life threatening complications such as pneumothorax. Although pneumothorax has been reported secondary to gastrointestinal perforation as a complication of various therapeutic endoscopic procedures, there has been no report of pneumothorax without perforation. We report a case of a patient who developed severe hypoxemia and hemodynamic instability during diagnostic upper endoscopy as a result of pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax in the absence of any signs of gastrointestinal perforation and comment on various possible mechanisms. Immediate endotracheal intubation and bilateral chest tube placement resulted in prompt return of the patient's oxygenation and vital signs back to normal. This report enlarges the list of possible causes of hypoxemia during endoscopy and shows the importance of early and prompt recognition, which allowed directed therapy with a good outcome. ( info)

3/401. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis caused by odontogenic infections.

    Intrathoracic dissemination of an odontogenic infection is very infrequent. The resulting clinical manifestation, known as descending necrotizing mediastinitis, causes high mortality. Due to the absence of early clinical or radiological signs, diagnosis is usually made only when the process is completely established. Treatment is a combination of intravenous antibiotics and mediastinal drainage, via either a cervical or a transthoracic approach. We report the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 4 patients with descending necrotizing mediastinitis, and their clinical course over a period of 10 years. ( info)

4/401. subcutaneous emphysema with spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax in adult dermatomyositis.

    We describe a 32-year-old patient with adult dermatomyositis who developed dyspnea and worsening of pre-existing infarcted skin lesions of the fingers. Chest radiographs showed diffuse hazy reticulonodular infiltration in both lungs, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax. The pulmonary symptoms and cutaneous lesions gradually improved with a high dose of prednisolone. Although subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum occur frequently in association with traumatic disruption of cutaneous and mucosal barriers and assisted ventilation, it has rarely been observed in patients with interstitial pneumonitis in connective tissue diseases. Although dermatomyositis and subcutaneous emphysema are all relatively well-known diseases to dermatologists, the occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax and subsequent subcutaneous emphysema in connective tissue diseases such as dermatomyositis is unfamiliar. We discuss the possible mechanisms of this condition. ( info)

5/401. Mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema in labor.

    The recent world literature on mediastinal emphysema has been reviewed and two cases added. This condition is relatively benign, and the supportive treatment is discussed. Subsequent pregnancies have been uncomplicated. ( info)

6/401. Subcutaneous, orbital, and mediastinal emphysema secondary to the use of an air-abrasive device.

    subcutaneous emphysema can occur whenever compressed air is employed intraorally. A case is presented of subcutaneous, orbital, and mediastinal emphysema subsequent to the use of an air-abrasive device. The case is believed to be the first reported case of an air-abrasive-related emphysema and is presented as a cautionary report. ( info)

7/401. Late onset of subcutaneous emphysema and hypercarbia following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Laparoscopic surgical techniques are increasingly being applied to treat intraperitoneal abnormalities. These minimally invasive techniques potentially offer decreased operation time, decreased morbidity, and decreased length of hospitalization stays. These procedures, however are not without potential morbidity. Herein we describe two patients treated with laparoseopic cholecystectomy whose cases were complicated with subcutaneous emphysema and hyperearbia without pneumothorax. In each of these cases, carbon dioxide gas was used to induce pneumoperitoneum. In one of the cases, the hypercarbia was a late event occurring during the surgery, and in the second case, the first such description in the literature (to our knowledge), hypercarbia developed after termination of the induced pneumoperitoneum. ( info)

8/401. Isolated longitudinal rupture of the posterior tracheal wall following blunt neck trauma.

    The authors report 3 female children (4, 5 and 12 years old) who suffered an isolated rupture of the posterior tracheal wall (membranous part) following a minimal blunt trauma of the neck. Such tracheal ruptures often cause a mediastinal and a cutaneous thoraco-cervical emphysema, and can also be combined with a pneumothorax. The following diagnostic steps are necessary: X-ray and CT of the chest, tracheo-bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy. The most important examination is the tracheo-bronchoscopy to visualize especially the posterior wall of the trachea. Proper treatment of an isolated rupture of the posterior tracheal wall requires knowledge about the injury mechanisms. The decision concerning conservative treatment or a surgical intervention is discussed. In our 3 patients we chose the conservative approach for the following reasons: 1) The lesions of the posterior tracheal wall were relatively small (1 cm, 1.5 cm, 3 cm) and showed a good adaptation of the wound margins. 2) No cases showed an associated injury of the esophageal wall. All of our patients had an uneventful recovery, the lesion healed within 10 to 14 days, and follow-up showed no late complications. ( info)

9/401. subcutaneous tissue emphysema of the hand secondary to noninfectious etiology: a report of two cases.

    subcutaneous emphysema of the hand can be benign and noninfectious in origin. Emphysema from gas-forming organisms is associated with systemic symptoms, whereas benign subcutaneous emphysema is not. High-pressure pneumatic tool injuries are a well-known cause of subcutaneous emphysema. Minor wounds in the web space skin may result in a transport of air across the defect, acting like a ball valve mechanism to trap and then force the air into the subcutaneous tissue, as illustrated by 1 of our patients. In the second patient, use of a high-vibration tool without apparent breach of skin was associated with extensive subcutaneous emphysema. The benign nature of the emphysema was revealed by a lack of local pain and inflammation in the presence of extensive crepitus and a lack of systemic symptoms. A noninfectious cause should always be considered. This may prevent unnecessary surgical intervention, which occurred in 1 of the 2 cases presented here. ( info)

10/401. Delayed radionecrosis of the larynx.

    radiation has been used to treat carcinoma of the larynx for more than 70 years. Radionecrosis is a well-known complication of this modality when treating head and neck neoplasms. It has been described in the temporal bone, midface, mandible, and larynx. Laryngeal radionecrosis is manifested clinically by dysphagia, odynophagia, respiratory obstruction, hoarseness, and recurrent aspiration. The vast majority of patients who develop laryngeal radionecrosis present with these symptoms within 1 year of treatment; however, delayed presentations have been reported up to 25 years after radiotherapy. We present, in a retrospective case analysis, an unusual case of laryngeal radionecrosis in a patient who presented more than 50 years after treatment with radiotherapy for carcinoma of the larynx. The cases of delayed laryngeal necrosis in the literature are presented. This represents the longest interval between treatment and presentation in the literature. The details of the presentation, clinical course, and diagnostic imaging are discussed. The pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment options for this rare complication are reviewed. Early stage (Chandler I and II) laryngeal radionecrosis may be treated conservatively and often observed. Late stage (Chandler III and IV) cases are medical emergencies, occasionally resulting in significant morbidity or mortality. Aggressive diagnostic and treatment measures must be implemented in these cases to improve outcome. This case represents the longest interval between initial treatment and presentation of osteoradionecrosis in the literature. A structured diagnostic and therapeutic approach is essential in managing this difficult problem. ( info)
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