Cases reported "Subdural Effusion"

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1/18. cerebrospinal fluid leak treated by aspiration and epidural blood patch under computed tomography guidance.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage secondary to surgery of the spine is usually treated by drainage of CSF through a subarachnoid catheter or surgical repair of the dural tear. We present 2 cases in which the pseudomeningocele was treated by aspiration of the leaked CSF and blood patch under computed tomography (CT) guidance. CASE REPORT: Two patients had headache after spine surgery. physical examination showed a bulging accumulation of fluid at the laminectomy site. Aspiration of the fluid followed by injection of the patients' blood was performed aseptically under CT guidance. The patients had resolution of their headache, and follow-up showed no recurrence of the CSF leak. CONCLUSIONS: CSF leak secondary to a surgical tear of the dura can be successfully treated by aspiration of the fluid followed by injection of the patient's blood. CT guidance is recommended to assess the extent of the CSF leakage, determine the degree of evacuation of the leaked CSF, and to confirm the injection of the blood into the epidural space and the space created by the pseudomeningocele.
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2/18. Discrepant time course of cranial and spinal subdural collections in a case of SIH treated by EBP.

    The MR monitoring of a patient with acute spontaneous intracranial hypotension successfully treated by epidural blood patch revealed strikingly different time course of the initially concomitant cranial and spinal subdural fluid collections. This undescribed feature suggested different pathophysiological mechanisms for the disorder in the two locations and should be kept in mind when imaging patients with the condition.
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3/18. Bilateral subdural effusion and cerebral displacement associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension: diagnostic and management strategies. Report of two cases.

    The authors describe two patients with bilateral subdural effusion and cerebral displacement associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) and discuss the possible pathophysiological origins of these abnormalities. The signs seen on magnetic resonance imaging in both cases, such as tonsillar descent, subdural effusion, meningeal enhancement, downward displacement of the optic chiasm, and crowding of this structure and the hypothalamus between the pituitary gland and brain, can help to establish the diagnosis of SIH. Therapy with a lumbar epidural blood patch resulted in the rapid resolution of all symptoms and most morphological abnormalities. The authors propose diagnostic and management strategies based on their own experiences and the reported cases of SIH in the medical literature.
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4/18. cerebrospinal fluid leak demonstrated by three-dimensional computed tomographic myelography in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    BACKGROUND: Precise determination of the spinal level of a cerebrospinal fluid leak is important in the diagnosis and treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The authors report two cases of SIH in which a cerebrospinal fluid leak was demonstrated by three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D-CT) myelography. CASE DESCRIPTION: By overlaying 3D-CT images of contrast-enhanced CSF and the spine, the point of leakage was clearly depicted in the three-dimensional spinal structure, which assisted targeted epidural blood patch under the guidance of fluoroscopy. Although associated chronic subdural hematoma had to be treated by burr hole drainage, the patients' postural headaches subsided after treatment. CONCLUSION: Clear CSF images in relation to vertebral bones are obtainable with 3D-CT myelography, rendering this modality very useful for the diagnosis and treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension.
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5/18. En bloc vertebrectomy and dural resection for chordoma: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: Report a surgical technique for dural reconstruction after vertebrectomy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: None available. methods: Clinical case analysis: chordoma from T12 to L2 with infiltration of the dura. RESULTS: Forty-six months after vertebral resection and reconstruction, the patient is disease free. CONCLUSIONS: Wide en bloc resection is required for local control in chordoma. When the tumor permeates the dura, resection not including the dura is intralesional with high risk of local recurrence. Therefore, a proper wide resection consists in vertebrectomy removing the dura infiltrated by the tumor. The two-stage dural reconstruction had strongly limited the leakage of liquor during surgery, and the dural patch provided extra strength anteriorly, where the dural suture is more difficult.
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6/18. intracranial hypotension caused by cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak: treatment with epidural blood patch.

    This report describes treatment with cervical epidural blood patch of low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache resulting from spontaneous CSF leak via a tear in a cervical dural cuff. The leak was diagnosed by a dynamic computed tomography (CT)-myelography study followed by gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)-scan. The epidural needle was inserted with the aid of image intensifier and CT-scan to guide the needle to the precise site of the CSF leak. blood mixed with gadolinium was injected, and subsequent MRI scanning provided the first description of spread of blood after cervical epidural blood patch. IMPLICATIONS: Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure may cause severe posturally-related headache. In the patient, a vertebral disc protrusion in the neck seems to have contributed to a CSF leak. An injection of blood into the epidural space at the precise site of the CSF leak was followed by complete and lasting resolution of the headache.
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7/18. Treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension with percutaneous placement of a fibrin sealant. Report of four cases.

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in the spine is an important cause of new, daily persistent headaches. Most patients respond well to conservative treatments including epidural blood patching. Limited options for effective treatment are available for patients in whom these treatments fail. The authors treated four patients (mean age 38 years; range 26-43 years) with percutaneous placement of a fibrin sealant. All these patients presented with intractable positional headaches. The CSF leak was located in the lower cervical spine in three patients and in the lower thoracic spine in one patient. Four to 20 milliliters of fibrin sealant was injected at the site of the CSF leak. Two of the four patients became asymptomatic within days of the procedure and thus avoided surgery. There were no complications of this procedure. Percutaneous placement of a fibrin sealant is a safe, minimally invasive treatment for spontaneous spinal CSF leaks and should be considered in patients in whom conservative treatment has failed.
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8/18. Lumbar myofascial flap for pseudomeningocele repair.

    OBJECT: Initial management for lumbar pseudomeningoceles entails the closed external drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with or without blood patch application. The presence of longstanding pseudomeningoceles and those associated with nonmicroscopic dural tears can be more problematic. Additionally the failure of nonoperative measures may necessitate surgery. Ideally the procedure should involve repairing the dural defect, removing the encapsulated cavity of the pseudomeningocele, and obliterating the extraspinal dead space to minimize the recurrence of the problem. methods: The authors describe a technique performed in 12 patients with large (> 5-cm-diameter) pseudomeningoceles referred for management following the failure of less aggressive measures. diagnosis was based on symptoms of lumbar wound swelling, postural headaches, back and leg pain, and was confirmed by imaging studies. In all patients subarachnoid CSF drainage and initial operative attempts to obliterate the pseudomeningocele had failed. They were treated between July 1990 and July 1998. The cause of the pseudomeningoceles was lumbar discectomy (four patients), lumbar decompression (one patient), lumbar decompression and placement of instrumentation (five patients), and intradural procedures (two patients). Their mean age was 47.9 years (range 20-67 years), and they presented at a mean of 5.5 months postoperatively (range 3 weeks-37 months). In all cases there was a satisfactory repair of the pseudomeningocele, dead space obliteration, and long-term symptomatic resolution. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar myofascial advancement for this problem is a useful technique in cases of symptomatic pseudomeningoceles. This technique requires the medial advancement of the musculofascial units of the paravertebral muscles for a layered closure over the exposed spinal canal with obliteration of the pseudomeningocele.
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9/18. Paradoxical postural headaches in cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

    Two patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, one at the level of fourth thoracic spine and another with undetermined level of leak, presented with paradoxical postural headaches in that the headaches were present when in a horizontal position and resolved if the patients were upright. One patient improved spontaneously and the other responded to a targeted epidural blood patch. Paradoxical postural headache is yet another headache type that can be associated with CSF leak and CSF volume depletion. Its mechanism is uncertain, but it could be related to congestion and dilatation of cerebral venous sinuses and large veins.
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10/18. The diagnosis and treatment of a patient with puerperal infection and subdural hygromas.

    We describe a patient readmitted after developing a persistent postural headache resulting from an accidental lumbar puncture during labor 10 days earlier. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bifrontal subdural hygromas and diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. The patient had signs of a puerperal infection, and an epidural patch was performed with dextran 40 instead of blood, after which gradual improvement was noted. The patient was discharged totally asymptomatic 3 days later.
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