Cases reported "Subdural Effusion"

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1/10. syndrome of cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia following lumbar puncture cerebrospinal fluid leak in a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    An 11-year-old girl presented with headache of 3 months' duration. There was bilateral disc edema. The cerebrospinal fluid pressure was 50 cm of water with normal cerebrospinal fluid cytology and biochemistry. She developed severe headache (different and disabling), dizziness, vomiting, and backache on sitting up 6 hours after lumbar puncture, and lying supine relieved all of her symptoms. Intravenous fluids, analgesics, and complete bed rest did not relieve her symptoms over the next 72 hours. She was completely relieved of her symptoms on receiving two tablets of Caffergot containing 200 mg of caffeine and 2 mg of ergotamine 72 hours after lumbar puncture. The symptoms recurred 48 hours later, and a repeat dose of Caffergot was required. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done 96 hours after lumbar puncture revealed the entire dura overlying the brain, including the posterior fossa, showing intense enhancement on contrast injection with leak at the lumbar puncture site. Oral caffeine (coffee, three times a day) was advised over 1 week. The patient remained asymptomatic, and a repeat MRI scan after 10 days showed complete clearing of the cerebrospinal fluid leak with no dural enhancement. The syndrome of cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia following lumbar puncture is reported in a girl with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
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2/10. Managing subdural fluid collection in infants.

    INTRODUCTION: The authors classify infantile subdural fluid collection (SFC) into four chronological stages: (I) SFC with arachnoid tear, (II) SFC with inner membrane, (III) SFC with inner and outer membrane, and (IV) subdural hematoma, and discuss the appropriate treatment for each stage. CONCLUSIONS: Fontanel tapping can be used for every stage of SFC, but it is best indicated for stage II. Massive bleeding seldom occurs with punctures made with a small needle. Continuous external drainage is indicated for stages II and III. Although the risk of bleeding decreases even in stage III, this method involves a risk of infection. Burr hole irrigation is usually indicated for stage IV. Implantation of an Ommaya reservoir and endoscopic observation of the SFC cavity along with burr hole irrigation are very useful. A subduroperitoneal shunt cannot be recommended for the treatment of SFC in most cases.
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3/10. Subdural hygroma as a complication of endoscopic neurosurgery--two case reports.

    Two cases of subdural hygroma occurred in a series of 77 neuroendoscopic procedures. An 8-year-old boy underwent neuroendoscopic cysto-cisternostomy of a left temporal arachnoid cyst. Routine postoperative magnetic resonance imaging 7 days later showed a large left-sided subdural hygroma without clinical symptoms. During the following 3 months, the subdural hygroma did not resolve spontaneously, so it was drained through a burr hole. A 3-month-old boy with aqueductal stenosis developed bilateral subdural hygromas after third ventriculostomy. Several punctures through the open anterior fontanelle relieved the hygromas but increasing head circumference required ventriculoperitoneal shunting 12 months later. Complications of neuroendoscopic procedures are increasingly reported, including various kinds of bleeding, infections, or damage of neuronal tissue. Only three previous cases of subdural hygroma or hematoma after neuroendoscopic interventions have been reported. The possible etiologies and clinical consequences of this rare complication have to be considered before selecting neuroendoscopy treatment.
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4/10. The diagnosis and treatment of a patient with puerperal infection and subdural hygromas.

    We describe a patient readmitted after developing a persistent postural headache resulting from an accidental lumbar puncture during labor 10 days earlier. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bifrontal subdural hygromas and diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. The patient had signs of a puerperal infection, and an epidural patch was performed with dextran 40 instead of blood, after which gradual improvement was noted. The patient was discharged totally asymptomatic 3 days later.
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5/10. Detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage in intracranial hypotension with radionuclide cisternography and blood activity monitoring.

    Radionuclide cisternography is an indispensable examination to detect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in patients suspected of having spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). However, it sometimes fails to demonstrate the site of CSF leakage, and in such cases, early bladder visualization is utilized for the diagnosis of SIH as an indirect finding. The aim of this work is to improve the diagnostic ability of radionuclide cisternography and to reevaluate the reliability of early bladder visualization as an indirect finding of CSF leakage. methods: We obtained serial images during the first hour after injection as well as the following time points in 4 patients with SIH and 5 with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) as a control. We also performed blood sampling over time to measure blood radioactivity concentrations. RESULTS: All 4 patients with SIH demonstrated leakage, 2 of 4 within one hour after injection. Bladder visualization was observed falsely in 4 of 5 patients with NPH, considered to be the result of a lumbar puncture complication. In this false bladder visualization, blood radioactivity showed a more rapid raise and fall than in CSF leakage of SIH. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of radionuclide cisternography, including early time points and blood sampling, may enable accurate diagnosis of SIH.
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6/10. Acute intracranial subdural hematoma following a lumbar CSF leak caused by spine surgery.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of an acute intracranial subdural hematoma that formed due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak following lumbar surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: intracranial hypotension may occur when CSF is removed from the subarachnoid space. Intracranial subdural hematoma formation has been observed following significant CSF drainage during lumbar puncture or ventricular shunt placement. However, formation has been described only twice in the literature following spine surgery. methods: Retrospective review of the patient's medical record and head CT imaging. RESULTS: A 55-year-old woman underwent lumbar surgery for failed back syndrome. Intraoperatively, a dural tear was noted and repaired. One week later, she developed expressive aphasia, and CSF drainage from her lumbar wound was noted. A head CT revealed an acute intracranial subdural hematoma with mass effect. Evacuation of the hematoma occurred via craniotomy, and the lumbar dura was repaired intraoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: We report the rare case of an acute intracranial subdural hematoma caused by a CSF leak following lumbar surgery. This report illustrates the potential morbidity associated with CSF leaks occurring after spinal surgery.
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7/10. Technical review and considerations for a cerebrospinal fluid leakage study.

    Within the past decade, published diagnostic algorithms for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage have included beta-2-transferrin analysis, rigid nasal endoscopy, high-resolution CT, CT cisternography, CT fluorescein lumbar puncture, and MRI but have not included the nuclear medicine CSF leakage study. However, some physicians still use this study today. This case report reviews the procedure and data calculations for the study. The presented case demonstrates how patient ingenuity in maintaining a compromised pledget for counting after sneezing contributed to the final diagnostic outcome. The patient was a 58-y-old man who presented with persistent nasal drainage and headaches, with no history of previous head trauma or surgery. The patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for a CSF leakage study, which had positive findings and led to a final diagnosis of a large dural and skull defect posteriorly over the ethmoid sinuses.
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8/10. Subdural effusions in the posterior fossa associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension remains a problem, despite increasing recognition. methods: Three patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension presented with typical findings on lumbar puncture, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and radioisotope cisternography. All patients showed subdural effusions in the posterior fossa on axial T2-weighted MR imaging. Axial MR images of 112 patients with other conditions were also screened for this finding. RESULTS: One of three patients had typical orthostatic headache, and the other two had continuous headache. The finding of subdural effusions in the posterior fossa on axial T2-weighted MR imaging disappeared after treatment. Similar findings were found in 14 of 112 patients with other conditions. Most of the patients were over 60 years old or had dementia or previous radiation therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Subdural effusions in the posterior fossa can be identified by T2-weighted axial MR imaging, and are useful for the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and for verifying the effectiveness of treatment.
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9/10. Management of cerebral spinal fluid leak complicating spinal cord stimulator implantation.

    Accidental puncture of the dura mater with resultant leakage of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and development of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a known potential complication of percutaneous placement of spinal cord stimulator (SCS) leads. However, the implications and management strategies for this complication have not been thoroughly reported. We report two cases of SCS lead placement complicated by CSF leak and PDPH.
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10/10. Benign subdural collections of infancy.

    Four asymptomatic infants with macrocrania, abnormal transillumination, and characteristic computed tomography scans are described. All had bilateral subdural collections, normal brain size, modest ventricular enlargement, and prominent cerebral sulci and interhemispheric fissures. Although these latter findings are often interpreted as atrophy, these infants had normal development and rapidly growing heads. No treatment beyond diagnostic subdural punctures was performed. After up to 13 months of follow-up, the size of the subdural collections was either stable or decreasing in all four infants.
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