Cases reported "Subdural Effusion"

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1/145. Treatment of a symptomatic posterior fossa subdural effusion in a child.

    We describe the first observation of a child with a posterior fossa subdural effusion with secondary hydrocephalus and tonsillar herniation. We diagnosed this entity in a 14-month-old girl with no history of trauma or coagulation disorder. The patient presented in our emergency department with opisthotonus and raised intracranial pressure resulting from supratentorial hydrocephalus. An emergency ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed, which resolved the symptoms only temporarily. Eventually external drainage of the subdural fluid was performed. The collection gradually disappeared, and both the external subdural shunt and the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt were removed. The patient made a complete neurological recovery. We review the physiopathology and treatment of subdural effusions in general, and propose some guidelines for the management of symptomatic effusions occurring in the posterior fossa in particular. ( info)

2/145. Posttraumatic subdural hygroma: CT findings and differential diagnosis.

    Subdural hygroma is a cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space. It is an epiphenomenon of head injury. CT is the preferred diagnostic imaging modality. Differential diagnosis has to be made with chronic subdural hematoma, and atrophy with enlargement of the subarachnoid space. As time goes by, subdural hygroma either resolves, or it becomes a chronic subdural hematoma. Neurosurgical evacuation is only required when mass effect creates neurologic symptoms. ( info)

3/145. diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension by using magnetic resonance myelography. Case report.

    The authors describe a case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension in which the leakage site was determined by using magnetic resonance (MR) myelography. This technique demonstrated the route of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, whereas other methods failed to show direct evidence of leakage. Magnetic resonance myelography is a noninvasive method that is highly sensitive in detecting CSF leakage. This is the first report in which a site of CSF leakage was detected using MR myelography. ( info)

4/145. Pump-regulated cerebrospinal fluid drainage.

    The drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the lumbar subarachnoid space is an effective technique for the treatment of CSF fistula and control of intracranial pressure in children and adults. The use of the lumbar drain poses unique challenges, however, in the pediatric population. We present a safe and effective method of pump-controlled lumbar subarachnoid drainage. This technique allows accurate titration of CSF removal while providing a closed system which is not sensitive to position changes or patient activity. Four case histories are reviewed. ( info)

5/145. Arachnoid cyst rupture with concurrent subdural hygroma.

    arachnoid cysts (ACs) are relatively common intracranial mass lesions, which occur most often in the middle cranial fossa. While these lesions can present as a mass lesion, many are asymptomatic. Rarely, posttraumatic or spontaneous rupture of ACs can result in intracystic hemorrhage, subdural hematoma or subdural hygroma. We have encountered two cases of ruptured arachnoid cysts that resulted in subdural hygromas. Both patients harbored middle cranial fossa cysts and suffered mild closed head injuries. The presentation, radiographic findings and surgical management of these patients as well as the association between ACs and subdural hygromas are described. ( info)

6/145. Simultaneous subdural effusion and hydrocephalus in infancy.

    hydrocephalus and subdural hematoma or effusion of infancy rarely present simultaneously, where both are active contributors to acutely increased intracranial pressure. In three cases, clinical findings characteristic of both were present. decompression of one can facilitate expansion of the other. Rapid progression of unsuspected hydrocephalus could be responsible for some of the poor results reported after treatment of subdural effusion alone. This possibility should be considered whenever progress is unsatisfactory during treatment of subdural effusion. ( info)

7/145. Hemorrhagic subdural effusion complicating an endoscopic III ventriculostomy.

    subdural effusion, a common postoperative complication of extracranial shunting for hydrocephalus, is usually caused by excessive drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. subdural effusion is thought to occur less frequently after a neuroendoscopic III ventriculostomy, and no reported cases have been symptomatic. We encountered a symptomatic subdural effusion with a component of hemorrhage 5 days after the latter procedure was performed to treat massive hydrocephalus in a 2-year-old boy. ( info)

8/145. False pituitary tumor in CSF leaks.

    The authors describe five patients with typical clinical and MRI features of CSF leak and large enhancing pituitaries. The source of CSF leak was identified and surgically repaired in three patients. This was followed by disappearance of clinical symptoms and resolution of MRI abnormalities, including the pituitary enlargement. Enhancing enlargement of pituitary is another head MRI abnormality in CSF leaks, likely reflecting a secondary pituitary hyperemia. ( info)

9/145. Arachnoid cyst with spontaneous rupture into the subdural space.

    Spontaneous rupture of an arachnoid cyst into the subdural space is an unusual complication. Only six cases have been reported in the literature. We report here an additional case and review the literature concerning arachnoid cysts. The possible pathogenesis of this condition is discussed. ( info)

10/145. Multi-level disruption of the spinal nerve root sleeves in spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage--two case reports.

    A 37-year-old male and an 18-year-old male presented with spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage from multiple nerve root sleeves. Both patients suffered abrupt onset of intense headache followed by nausea, dizziness, and one patient with and one without positional headache. Radioisotope spinal cisternography of both patients revealed that the CSF leaks were not localized in a special zone but distributed to multiple spinal nerve root sleeves. Magnetic resonance (MR) myelography suggested that the spinal CSF column was fully expanded to the root sleeves. The extraspinal nerve bundles demonstrated numerous high intensity spots. Both patients were treated conservatively, and their symptoms resolved within one month. Repeat radioisotope cisternography and MR myelography confirmed the spine was normal after recovery. We suggest that spreading disruption of the arachnoid membrane occurs at the nerve root sleeves due to CSF overflow into the spinal canal. ( info)
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