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1/3. eikenella corrodens endocarditis in an intravenous drug user: case report and literature review.

    A rare case of eikenella corrodens endocarditis in an intravenous drug user is reported. Repeated blood cultures from the patient established the diagnosis of this infection. However, evaluation of the cardiac function using two-dimensional echocardiography with Doppler flow demonstrated a large pedunculated tricuspid vegetation. Also evident on this study was a dilated right ventricle with diminished contractility and regurgitation. Complete sterilization of the blood was achieved after a 2-week course of intravenous penicillin and gentamicin followed by an additional 4-week course of intravenous penicillin alone. Clinicians treating suspected IV drug users should be aware of the potential pathogenicity of this rare, facultative, anaerobic gram-negative bacillus (E corrodens). A combination of intravenous penicillin and aminoglycoside should be considered as the initial treatment followed by an additional course of intravenous penicillin for such patients with valvular vegetation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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2/3. lactobacillus casei endocarditis in an intravenous heroin drug addict: a case report.

    A 24-year-old hiv negative unemployed intravenous heroin addict with teeth in poor condition was admitted to hospital with left hemiparesis; CT scan of the brain revealed a hypodense area in the right parietal region. He was apyrexial with marked leukocytosis and raised ESR, had an aortic diastolic murmur and an echocardiogram showed marked aortic insufficiency with possible small vegetations on the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. lactobacillus casei was isolated from repeated blood cultures. Therapy with penicillin g together with netilmicin for 6 weeks led to improvement of his clinical status and an echocardiogram on discharge showed clear improvement. Regression of the cerebral lesions was also demonstrated on CT scan. We conclude that lactobacillus species should be sought in all haemoculture negative endocarditis in the presence of tooth disease.
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ranking = 6
keywords = bacillus
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3/3. Needle licker's osteomyelitis.

    eikenella corrodens, a fastidious, slow-growing, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus may be encountered in wounds exposed to human saliva, especially human bites and head and neck infections. An unusual case of a mixed flora E corrodens and streptococcus septic arthritis with adjacent osteomyelitis secondary to saliva contamination from licking an intravenous (i.v.) needle is presented. A literature search showed 53 previous cases of E corrodens infections in i.v. drug users. However, none of these infections affected bones or joints. The microbiology and unusual antibiotic sensitivity are presented. Recommendations for treatment include penicillin or ampicillin. tetracycline is recommended in the penicillin-allergic patient. This is the first case that draws attention to the connection between E corrodens, i.v. drug use, and septic arthritis and osteomyelitis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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