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1/423. recurrence of intravenous talc granulomatosis following single lung transplantation.

    Advanced pulmonary disease is an unusual consequence of the intravenous injection of oral medications, usually developing over a period of several years. A number of patients with this condition have undergone lung transplantation for respiratory failure. However, a history of drug abuse is often considered to be a contraindication to transplantation in the context of limited donor resources. A patient with pulmonary talc granulomatosis secondary to intravenous methylphenidate injection who underwent successful lung transplantation and subsequently presented with recurrence of the underlying disease in the transplanted lung 18 months after transplantation is reported. ( info)

2/423. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach. An unusual case of alveolar deposition from swallowing metallic mercury in an attempt at self-poisoning.

    The authors report a case of deliberate self-poisoning in a drug addict who swallowed elemental mercury: in so doing he inadvertently acquired a permanent diffuse deposition of mercury particles throughout both lung fields. Swallowed mercury should be relatively harmless in small quantity but the high specific gravity and free flowing properties of elemental mercury allowed it to overcome the normal swallowing pathways--such that some of it passed into the bronchial tree instead of passing harmlessly through the gut. In that site its significant vapour pressure, together with its potential for oxidation to inorganic mercury--which may, in turn, be absorbed across the alveolar membrane, gives high potential for mercury poisoning. ( info)

3/423. meningioma in four patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    We describe four patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had development of meningiomas. In contrast to those in the general population who have meningiomas, all our patients were young men; the mean age was 40 years (range, 32 to 50). Their risk behavior for HIV was homosexuality (three patients) and intravenous drug use (one patient). The CD4 cell count in each of the three homosexual men was less than 50/microL and was 280/microL in the drug user. Imaging studies showed enhancing lesions in three of the patients. Although each of these meningiomas could have occurred in otherwise normal young to middle-aged men, we speculate that the meningiomas may have grown in these HIV-infected hosts because of either loss of immune function or dysregulation of cytokines. ( info)

4/423. tuberculosis treatment through directly observed therapy in a large multisite methadone maintenance treatment program: addressing the public health needs of a high-risk population.

    The rate of tuberculosis in patients receiving methadone treatment is significantly greater than the general population. The stabilization of former injection drug users occurs within methadone maintenance treatment programs, indicating the suitability of these sites for directly observed therapy (DOT). There are formidable barriers to the success of DOT, some are institutional, others patient-related. Strategies to address these obstacles need to be implemented. The integration of DOT into existing programs required support from the new york State Department of Health, institutional commitment, as well as continued staff and patient education and training. ( info)

5/423. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and human immunodeficiency virus infection: 2 cases and a review of the literature.

    Cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are rare in patients with hiv-1 infection and almost all of the cases reported are of T-cell lineage with histopathological features of mycosis fungoides or sezary syndrome. We studied 2 cases of mycosis fungoides in hiv-1-positive patients who were intravenous drug abusers and were in stage II and IV C2 (CDC'86), respectively. The first patient (stage II) had multiple, erythematous and infiltrated large plaques on the abdomen, back, arms and legs, whereas the second patient (stage IV) had smaller erythematous, slightly scaly and infiltrated pruritic plaques on the trunk and limbs. Their CD4 lymphocyte counts were 634 and 250 cells/mm3, respectively. Biopsies showed features consistent with mycosis fungoides, with an epidermotropic pattern. The immunohistochemical study revealed a T-cell lineage of this atypical infiltrate. Both patients partially responded to topical steroid ointment, showing moderate improvement. Further biopsies performed 6 months later confirmed the prior diagnosis of mycosis fungoides. No tumour stage was observed during a 2-year follow-up. We conclude that mycosis fungoides is rare in HIV-positive patients, but must be included in the differential diagnosis of erythematous plaques in these patients. In suspected, but non-diagnostic cases of mycosis fungoides in HIV-positive patients, only a close clinical and histopathological follow-up can confirm the diagnosis. ( info)

6/423. nevirapine induced opiate withdrawal among injection drug users with HIV infection receiving methadone.

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic interactions complicate and potentially compromise the use of antiretroviral and other HIV therapeutic agents in patients with HIV disease. This may be particularly so among those receiving treatment for substance abuse. OBJECTIVE: We describe seven cases of opiate withdrawal among patients receiving chronic methadone maintenance therapy following initiation of therapy with the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, nevirapine. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: In all seven patients, due to the lack of prior information regarding a significant pharmacokinetic interaction between these agents, the possibility of opiate withdrawal was not anticipated. Three patients, for whom methadone levels were available at the time of development of opiate withdrawal symptoms, had subtherapeutic methadone levels. In each case, a marked escalation in methadone dose was required to counteract the development of withdrawal symptoms and allow continuation of antiretroviral therapy. Three patients continued nevirapine with methadone administered at an increased dose; however, four chose to discontinue nevirapine. CONCLUSION: To maximize HIV therapeutic benefit among opiate users, information is needed about pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and therapies for substance abuse. ( info)

7/423. cellulose granulomatosis of the lungs.

    Chest radiographs and high-resolution chest CT scans were performed in a 30-year-old man with a history of intravenous drug abuse and diffuse micronodular infiltrates. Transbronchial biopsy gave a diagnosis of cellulose granulomatosis of the lung. cellulose granulomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial disease, especially in the setting of intravenous drug abuse. ( info)

8/423. Acute ischaemic colitis following intravenous cocaine use.

    Intestinal ischaemia is an uncommon complication of recreational cocaine abuse. We report the case of a 36-year-old male who underwent emergency surgery for acute abdomen. At laparotomy, the transverse colon appeared markedly oedematous, dilated and with subserosal haemorrhage. Segmental resection was performed and microscopic examination of the resected specimen showed focal necrosis of the mucosa with a patchy polymorphonuclear and mononuclear infiltrate. The submucosa was markedly thickened due to oedema; focal haemorrhage was observed and blood vessels were dilated but showed no structural abnormalities or thrombosis. These findings were consistent with ischaemic colitis. No risk factors for intestinal ischaemia were present but the patient stated that he had injected cocaine i.v. the day before the onset of symptoms. He was not a cocaine abuser but occasionally sniffed, smoked or injected cocaine. cocaine use should be considered in the aetiological diagnosis of intestinal ischaemia in young patients. ( info)

9/423. Compartment syndrome of the hand following intra-arterial injection of heroin.

    We report two cases of compartment syndrome of the hand and forearm, due to intra-arterial injection of heroin, managed by surgical fasciotomies alone. We also review the literature on the management of this condition. ( info)

10/423. Transmission of hepatitis c within Australian prisons.

    Transmission of hepatitis c virus (HCV) within prisons has long been suspected but has not been satisfactorily documented. We present four cases of HCV infection occurring during periods of continuous imprisonment. Each subject was HCV seronegative on entering prison and on repeat testing after 4-52 months in prison, but subsequently became seropositive. Two subjects gave a history of injecting drug use, and the most likely means of infection in the other two subjects were lacerations from barbers shears and lacerations arising from physical assault. There is an urgent need for detailed study of the incidence of HCV infection and the modes of transmission in prisons. ( info)
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