Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/95. Toxic ingestion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become a popular new drug of abuse. Its effects include euphoria and disinhibition. Recently, several cases have been reported in the literature of life-threatening or lethal ingestions. We report the case of a 17-year-old male who became unresponsive after taking GHB. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is used outside the united states to treat narcolepsy. In the past, it was touted as a muscle-bulking aid and was taken by body-builders. It has also been implicated as a drug involved in "date-rapes." patients who ingest excessive GHB have a markedly altered level of consciousness, as did the patient in this illustrative case. neostigmine and physostigmine show promise as potential reversal agents. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid overdose should be considered in any patient with altered mental status and a history of recreational drug abuse.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/95. The role of cultural and social factors in the cause of addictive disorders.

    For many centuries, generations of young people were protected from the early onset of addictive disorders. Although addiction to drugs and alcohol had been well known for centuries, widespread addiction has occurred only in recent centuries. Because the human gene pool or human biochemistry did not likely change suddenly to produce this result, social and cultural factors likely have produced widespread addiction. From another perspective, the sociocultural factors that once protected our societies against widespread addiction may have become weakened or inoperative. Our social institutions--our families, schools, religions, neighborhoods, and governments--no longer protect us and our young from addiction as they once did. The failure of traditional social institutions to protect us from addiction does not mean that we must seek drug panaceas only in nonsocietal venues, such as medications and psychotherapies. Rather, we should look to those elements of our institutions that have failed us and seek to bolster them. A gradually evolving body of literature on this topic demonstrates that institutional changes can serve to reduce widespread addiction among us. Moreover, these changes can be implemented at many levels: within our families, schools, friendship groups, workplaces, churches, neighborhoods, and legislatures.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/95. atrial fibrillation and anabolic steroids.

    A young male bodybuilder, consuming large doses of anabolic steroids (AS), presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with symptomatic rapid atrial fibrillation (AF). Echocardiogram revealed significant septal hypokinesis, and posterior and septal wall thickness at the upper limit of normal for highly trained athletes. The atrial fibrillation had not recurred at 10 weeks after discontinuation of AS use. Consumption of these agents in athletes has been associated with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and sudden death.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/95. death due to inhalation of ethyl chloride.

    A 30-year-old white male was found dead in a locked apartment with a rag held loosely in his mouth. Four cans (3 empty, 1 partially empty) containing ethyl chloride and labeled as VCR head cleaner were found next to the body. phenylpropanolamine and low therapeutic levels of diazepam (64 microg/L) and nordiazepam (126 microg/L) were detected during toxicological analysis. An unidentified peak was observed when performing ethanol analysis by headspace gas chromatography. The peak was identified as ethyl chloride and the concentrations in the blood, urine, vitreous, brain, and lungs of the deceased were 423 mg/L, 35 mg/L, 12 mg/L, 858 mg/kg, and 86 mg/kg, respectively. The results were compared with previously reported levels of ethyl chloride in blood and vitreous and, based on a literature search, we believe that this is the first report of ethyl chloride levels in tissue.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/95. Reversible hypogonadism and azoospermia as a result of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in a bodybuilder with personality disorder. A case report.

    We report a case of reversible hypogonadism and azoospermia resulting from anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in a body-builder with primary personality disorder. A keen body builder, a 20-year-old man, developed acute aggressive and destructive behavior after 10-month use of Bionabol (mean total dose of 1,120 mg per month), and Retabolil (mean total dose of 150 mg per month). He was found to meet the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for borderline personality disorder. On admission to the hospital the clinical profile of the patient showed extremely low levels of serum testosterone. Values increased to normal levels 10 months after withdrawal of steroids. The semen was azoospermic at the beginning of the study period, oligospermic five months later, and reached 20 x 10(6) sperm per mL ten months after the steroid discontinuation. Anabolic steroids can greatly affect the male pituitary-gonadal axis. A hypogonadal state, characterized by decreased serum testosterone and impaired spermatogenesis, was induced in the patient. This condition was reversible after the steroid withdrawal, but the process took more than ten months. His personal imbalance could be considered a personality trait rather than a result of the anabolic-androgenic steroid use. There were probably dispositional personality characteristics that contributed to anabolic steroid abuse in our patient. The hypogonadal changes which occurred after his long-term steroid abuse were for the most part reversible.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 6
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/95. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): a newer drug of abuse.

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an illicitly marketed substance that has recently gained popularity among body builders and party attendees as a drug of abuse. GHB is a depressant that acts on the central nervous system. It is purported as a strength enhancer, euphoriant and aphrodisiac and is one of several agents reported as being used as a "date rape" drug. Because of its central nervous system depressant effects, GHB can be lethal when combined with alcohol or other depressants. Currently, there is no accepted medical use for GHB, and the U.S. food and Drug Administration has prohibited its manufacture and sale. Clinicians should be familiar with the typical clinical presentation of GHB and its adverse effects. In addition, patients should be warned of its potential toxicity and be cautioned to avoid the use of GHB.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/95. Anabolic steroid abuse and cardiac sudden death: a pathologic study.

    CONTEXT: Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) used for improving physical performance have been considered responsible for acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between AAS and cardiac death. DESIGN: Case report. patients: Two young, healthy, male bodybuilders using AAS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathologic cardiac findings associated with AAS ingestion. RESULTS: The autopsy revealed normal coronary arteries. In one case, we documented a typical infarct with a histologic age of 2 weeks. A segmentation of myocardial cells at the intercalated disc level was observed in the noninfarcted region. This segmentation was the only anomaly detected in the second case. No other pathologic findings in the heart or other organs were found. urine in both subjects contained the metabolites of nortestosterone and stanozolol. comment: A myocardial infarct without vascular lesions is rare. To our knowledge, its association with AAS use, bodybuilding, or both lacks any evidence of a cause-effect relationship. The histologic findings in our 2 cases and in the few others reported in medical literature are nonspecific and do not prove the cardiac toxicity of AAS. A better understanding of AAS action on the neurogenic control of the cardiac function in relation to regional myocardial contraction and vascular regulation is required.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/95. Syncopal episodes in a young amateur body builder.

    A 36 year old male weight training enthusiast suffered several syncopal episodes. An electrocardiogram confirmed atrial fibrillation with normal ventricular response. The patient admitted to taking anabolic steroids and bromocriptine. The atrial fibrillation was considered to be due to bromocriptine misuse.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/95. The outcome of drug smuggling by 'body packers'--the British experience.

    Body packing or internal concealment used by drug dealers to smuggle illicit substances, puts the body packer at risk of both imprisonment and death. We report our experience over a 4 year period from January 1996 to December 1999 of suspects presenting to our hospital (the largest series in europe). A total of 572 cases were assessed radiographically and 180 were shown to be carrying foreign bodies. The commonest reasons for admission were suspected overdose or gastrointestinal obstruction. Thirty-six cases were admitted, of whom 7 required surgical intervention. No deaths occurred. Of all people detained for smuggling by internal concealment into Britain during this period, 27% were seen in our hospital. These cases may present alone or escorted by Her Majesty's Customs and Excise personnel, and one must be aware of this possibility even when situated away from a port of entry.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/95. ketamine dependence.

    ketamine hydrochloride is a safe and rapid-acting non-opioid, lipid soluble anaesthetic with a short elimination half-life that is used for medical and veterinary purposes. It produces a state of "dissociative anaesthesia", probably from action on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The psychotropic effects of ketamine range from dissociation and depersonalization to psychotic experiences and include a sensation of feeling light, body distortion, absence of time sense, novel experiences of cosmic oneness and out-of-body experiences. Abuse of ketamine has been reported, the typical abuser being an individual who uses multiple drugs and has some contact with medical agencies. This case demonstrates the effects of large doses of ketamine in a person with polysubstance abuse. The case also highlights development of significant tolerance to ketamine without prominent withdrawal symptoms. Caution in use of ketamine is reiterated in light of its abuse liability.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = body
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Substance-Related Disorders'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.