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1/155. Pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage: a rare neuroimaging pitfall.

    OBJECTIVE: We report an unusual case of the CT appearance of diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with anoxic encephalopathy, a situation which neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neuroradiologists should be aware of. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A young man collapsed unconscious in jail after abusing an unknown quantity and variety of drugs. CT scan showed a picture compatible with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. INTERVENTION: As the patient had a Glasgow coma Score of 3 no heroic intervention was undertaken. An autopsy performed 40 hours after the initial ictus and 24 hours after death revealed no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage but gross and microscopic evidence of anoxic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: Anoxic encephalopathy can mimic diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage on CT.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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2/155. atrial fibrillation and anabolic steroids.

    A young male bodybuilder, consuming large doses of anabolic steroids (AS), presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with symptomatic rapid atrial fibrillation (AF). Echocardiogram revealed significant septal hypokinesis, and posterior and septal wall thickness at the upper limit of normal for highly trained athletes. The atrial fibrillation had not recurred at 10 weeks after discontinuation of AS use. Consumption of these agents in athletes has been associated with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and sudden death.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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3/155. Nontraumatic nasal septal abscesses in the immunocompromised: etiology, recognition, treatment, and sequelae.

    Proper management of a nasal septal abscess requires prompt diagnosis, adequate surgical drainage, and antibiotics to prevent the potentially dangerous spread of infection and the development of severe functional and cosmetic sequelae. Most septal abscesses are the result of trauma to the nose with septal hematoma and subsequent infection. We present our experience with nasal septal abscesses in five immunocompromised patients without history of nasal trauma. All patients were treated with surgical drainage and antibiotics. The infections in four patients resolved, whereas in the fifth, the infection led to death. We report these cases to depict alternate etiologies of nasal septal abscess, particularly in the immunocompromised patient. Our review illustrates the wide spectrum of disease presentation, provides treatment strategies, and emphasizes the potentially catastrophic sequelae of this disease when unrecognized. With the growing number of immunocompromised individuals, it is important to recognize the potential for immunocompromise to influence the development of septal abscess.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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4/155. Asphyxial death during prone restraint revisited: a report of 21 cases.

    Determining the cause of death when a restrained person suddenly dies is a problem for death investigators. Twenty-one cases of death during prone restraint are reported as examples of the common elements and range of variation in these apparently asphyxial events. A reasonable diagnosis of restraint asphyxia can usually be made after ruling out other causes and collecting supportive participant and witness statements in a timely fashion. Common elements in this syndrome include prone restraint with pressure on the upper torso; handcuffing, leg restraint, or hogtying; acute psychosis and agitation, often stimulant drug induced; physical exertion and struggle; and obesity. Establishing a temporal association between the restraint and the sudden loss of consciousness/death is critical to making a correct determination of cause of death.
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ranking = 9
keywords = death
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5/155. Deaths associated with MBDB misuse.

    The use of phenethylamines in the dance scene is now well established. Apart from amphetamine, the commonest phenethylamine encountered in clinical and forensic settings is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) commonly known as ecstasy. Other phenethylamines, which have similar effects are encountered, such as 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and their use has resulted in death. We report two deaths associated with another less commonly encountered member of the group, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), also known as Methyl-J and Eden.
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ranking = 2
keywords = death
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6/155. Manifold manifestations of ergotism.

    Vasospastic side effects leading to organic manifestations are rare in ergotamine therapy. To our knowledge, combinations of more than two signs of ergotism have rarely been described in the literature so far. We present a 65-year-old male patient who as a consequence of severe migraine had developed ergotamine abuse. He was admitted to our hospital after one week of increasing abdominal pain. During laparotomy, necrotic areas of the small intestine and the sigmoid colon were resected, which on histopathologic examination revealed severe hypertrophy of the smooth musculature of mesenteric arteries, resulting from chronic vasospasms. Postoperatively, the patient developed ischaemia of the limbs which was confirmed by angiography. Before death, the patient also showed ischaemic signs in the acrae and necrosis of the tongue.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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7/155. The whisper of death: psychotherapy with a dying vietnam veteran.

    psychotherapy with a dying vietnam veteran is described. In spite of a severe heart condition and hiv-positive diagnosis, the outspoken and provocative patient reverts to heroin and cocaine use early in the treatment. This causes a heart attack and interruption of treatment. The therapist maintains empathy, a solid bond is forged, and the patient returns, but under constrained circumstances. A turning point is reached, both in the treatment and in this final phase of the patient's life, with major life improvement ensuing. At death the patient leaves word to thank the therapist. This case exemplifies how the approach of death lends urgency to positive forces appropriate to life's final developmental stage, and how end-of-life therapy bolsters those forces.
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ranking = 6
keywords = death
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8/155. Plastic bag asphyxia in southeast scotland.

    Death resulting from plastic bag asphyxia has been recognized for >40 years, but relatively little is known about either its epidemiology or its pathophysiology. Over 15 years (1984-1998), 30 deaths were attributed to plastic bag asphyxia among the 14,560 autopsies performed in the forensic medicine Unit in Edinburgh. These 30 deaths involved 20 male and 10 female subjects, with an age range of 13 to 81 years. Eleven had some alcohol measurable in the blood, with four having levels >80 mg/dl. Only one individual appeared to have ingested a drug overdose, but inhaled substances within the plastic bag may have contributed to death in five cases. The absence of childhood accidental deaths may reflect successful preventive measures. The 3 accidental deaths involved adults (including 2 who died of autoerotic asphyxia), and the remaining deaths were 27 suicides. Of those who committed suicide, most (59%) had chronic psychiatric illness rather than chronic debilitating or terminal physical illness. In contrast with reports from the united states, publicity associated with "self-deliverance" did not result in an increased number of deaths from plastic bag asphyxia (4 deaths in this series). Analysis of the circumstances of all the deaths revealed them to be difficult to predict and hence prevent.
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ranking = 9
keywords = death
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9/155. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB): an increasing trend in drug abuse.

    The use of recreational drugs in society is becoming a widespread problem increasing the workload of all the emergency services. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is one of these, a drug used primarily for its euphoric effect. Toxic effects of ingestion include bradycardia, slow respiration or apnoea, coma and death. We present seven cases, all of which had consumed GHB either alone or in conjunction with other drugs and alcohol. The presentation, clinical features and management of these cases are described. All health care personnel involved in the emergency setting need to know of its existence, toxic effects and initial management with particular reference to airway control and possible assisted ventilation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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10/155. Anabolic steroid abuse and cardiac sudden death: a pathologic study.

    CONTEXT: Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) used for improving physical performance have been considered responsible for acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between AAS and cardiac death. DESIGN: Case report. patients: Two young, healthy, male bodybuilders using AAS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathologic cardiac findings associated with AAS ingestion. RESULTS: The autopsy revealed normal coronary arteries. In one case, we documented a typical infarct with a histologic age of 2 weeks. A segmentation of myocardial cells at the intercalated disc level was observed in the noninfarcted region. This segmentation was the only anomaly detected in the second case. No other pathologic findings in the heart or other organs were found. urine in both subjects contained the metabolites of nortestosterone and stanozolol. comment: A myocardial infarct without vascular lesions is rare. To our knowledge, its association with AAS use, bodybuilding, or both lacks any evidence of a cause-effect relationship. The histologic findings in our 2 cases and in the few others reported in medical literature are nonspecific and do not prove the cardiac toxicity of AAS. A better understanding of AAS action on the neurogenic control of the cardiac function in relation to regional myocardial contraction and vascular regulation is required.
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ranking = 6
keywords = death
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