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11/850. Difficulties inherent in certifying people with gender dysphoria.

    This is a first report of the aeromedical implications of an airman undergoing gender transformation. It is clear that during the period of instituting high-dose hormones to undergo sexual transformation appropriate observation periods should be implemented due to the strong effects of these drugs on the psyche.
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ranking = 1
keywords = drug
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12/850. Surrender to win: how adolescent drug and alcohol users change their lives.

    adolescent drug and alcohol addiction is a serious problem in the united states. However, some addicted adolescents do quit drinking and using drugs. This paper offers a phenomenological analysis of seven young adults who managed to surrender their addictions and, for anywhere from five to fifteen years, construct sober identities. The participants came from highly dysfunctional homes, began substance use as children, and were polydrug users. A series of catastrophic life events led them to alcoholics anonymous, where they were exposed to self-reflective prayer, a cadre of recovering adolescents and, in particular, adults who offered detached nurturing. This provided the support they needed to confront their addictions through the Twelve Steps of alcoholics anonymous.
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ranking = 7
keywords = drug
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13/850. Case studies in the family treatment of drug abuse.

    This article, with case illustrations, attempts to demonstrate that drug-abuse behavior can be understood more clearly in the light of family loyalties and unresolved family crises than from the perspective that drug abusers are social deviates.1 Drug abuse is viewed as symptomatic, as a signal that both drug abuser and his or her family are having difficulty in getting past a particular stage in the natural unfolding life cycle of a family. Treatment of drug abuse is seen primarily as helping the family to become "unstuck," thereby freeing the individual's and family's energy for the task of self-development and growth rather than expending it to maintain rigid patterns of interaction in an attempt to prevent change.
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ranking = 8
keywords = drug
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14/850. Massive intracerebral hemorrhage in an amphetamine addict.

    A case of massive intracerebral hemorrhage, a rare but often fatal complication of amphetamine abuse, is described along with the review of the literature. There has been resurgence in the abuse of amphetamine. Amphetamine or other illicit drug abuse should be considered in young patients with cerebrovascular events.
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ranking = 1
keywords = drug
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15/850. methamphetamine-related stroke: four cases.

    Amphetamine use in certain parts of the united states has risen dramatically. methamphetamine, the most-common illicitly abused type of amphetamine, can be inhaled, injected intravenously, or smoked. It is a potent sympathomimetic that may lead to vascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke. Because of the demographics of drug use, these potentially devastating events usually occur in relatively young patients. The pathophysiology of stroke related to amphetamine use is multifactorial. Elevation in blood pressure, vasculitis, or other vascular toxicity are postulated as major mechanisms. Four cases of stroke associated with the use of methamphetamine, all occurring in patients ranging in age from 29-45 years, are described. methamphetamine use appears to be a risk factor for the development of stroke. The rise in methamphetamine use will undoubtedly result in increased Emergency Department admissions with clinical presentations very similar to those of cocaine intoxication.
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ranking = 1
keywords = drug
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16/850. Acute unilateral visual loss due to a single intranasal methamphetamine abuse.

    An otherwise healthy 35 year old male with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) presented himself three days after a single intranasal methamphetamine abusus. Directly upon awakening the day after the recreational use of this drug, he discovered an acute and severe visual loss of his right eye. This unilateral loss of vision was permanent and eventually lead to a pale and atrophic optic nerve head. The characteristics of this visual loss, together with the aspect of the optic nerve head was very similar to the classical non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). We suggest a direct ischemic episode to the short posterior ciliary arteries due to this single intranasal abuse of methamphetamine as the underlying pathogenesis of this acute and permanent visual loss.
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ranking = 1
keywords = drug
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17/850. The role of cultural and social factors in the cause of addictive disorders.

    For many centuries, generations of young people were protected from the early onset of addictive disorders. Although addiction to drugs and alcohol had been well known for centuries, widespread addiction has occurred only in recent centuries. Because the human gene pool or human biochemistry did not likely change suddenly to produce this result, social and cultural factors likely have produced widespread addiction. From another perspective, the sociocultural factors that once protected our societies against widespread addiction may have become weakened or inoperative. Our social institutions--our families, schools, religions, neighborhoods, and governments--no longer protect us and our young from addiction as they once did. The failure of traditional social institutions to protect us from addiction does not mean that we must seek drug panaceas only in nonsocietal venues, such as medications and psychotherapies. Rather, we should look to those elements of our institutions that have failed us and seek to bolster them. A gradually evolving body of literature on this topic demonstrates that institutional changes can serve to reduce widespread addiction among us. Moreover, these changes can be implemented at many levels: within our families, schools, friendship groups, workplaces, churches, neighborhoods, and legislatures.
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ranking = 2
keywords = drug
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18/850. Medical treatment of the adolescent drug abuser. An opportunity for rehabilitative intervention.

    Illnesses related to both the pharmacologic properties of abused substances and their methods of administration often bring the teenager to medical attention and may provide sufficient motivation for the adolescent to seek help beyond the acute problem. Successful treatment of an overdose reaction, an abstinence syndrome, or any other medical complication of drug abuse may give the physician a unique opportunity to begine further evalution for future care.
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ranking = 8.3235881872641
keywords = overdose, drug
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19/850. Phenomenology of gasoline intoxication and withdrawal symptoms among adolescents in india: a case series.

    Inhalant withdrawal symptoms have previously been described but not well documented. This case-series describes the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of nine children and adolescents with gasoline abuse. gasoline inhalation was the drug of choice in our patients. The mean age was 13.6 years and all the subjects belonged to low socioeconomic status. Most of the subjects used daily and all subjects reported alcohol abuse in the father. All subjects reported a syndrome of intoxication as described in previous reports. All subjects also reported a withdrawal syndrome including irritability, psychomotor retardation, anhedonia, dry mouth, sleep disturbances, craving, and increased lacrimation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = drug
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20/850. African American female basketball players: an examination of alcohol and drug behaviors.

    The use of drugs and alcohol by National Collegiate Athletic association Division I African American female basketball players and their reasons for using these substances were examined. The investigation is part of a broader study investigating the use of alcohol, weight-loss products, tobacco, amphetamines, and anabolic steroids by female college athletes. Of the 50 athletes in this study, 72% reported having consumed alcoholic beverages, and 46% had engaged in binge drinking. Only 8% reported using either weight-loss or tobacco products, and there were no reports of using amphetamines or anabolic steroids. Usage patterns indicated that the athletes in the study were aware of the short-term negative effects of alcohol and tobacco; those respondents who did use these products greatly reduced their consumption during the competitive season. Factors found to influence use include social and peer influences and coaches' rules.
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ranking = 5
keywords = drug
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