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1/9. African American female basketball players: an examination of alcohol and drug behaviors.

    The use of drugs and alcohol by National Collegiate Athletic association Division I African American female basketball players and their reasons for using these substances were examined. The investigation is part of a broader study investigating the use of alcohol, weight-loss products, tobacco, amphetamines, and anabolic steroids by female college athletes. Of the 50 athletes in this study, 72% reported having consumed alcoholic beverages, and 46% had engaged in binge drinking. Only 8% reported using either weight-loss or tobacco products, and there were no reports of using amphetamines or anabolic steroids. Usage patterns indicated that the athletes in the study were aware of the short-term negative effects of alcohol and tobacco; those respondents who did use these products greatly reduced their consumption during the competitive season. Factors found to influence use include social and peer influences and coaches' rules.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tobacco
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2/9. Stroke in young patients: a diagnostic challenge in the emergency room.

    Stroke in young adults has been related to mechanisms different to those found in older individuals. Cardiogenic embolism, arteritis, atherosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, pregnancy-related angiopathy, migrainous stroke, anaemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, arterial dissection, the consumption of toxic substances and head trauma have been described. We present a young man with a case history of tobacco and cocaine abuse who suffered a mild head trauma, with normal neurological examination, and a computed tomography scan image of a right anterior cerebral infarction. serum biochemistry showed no alterations according to the diagnosis protocol for stroke in young patients. Various mechanisms have been involved, such as vasospasm, increasing arterial pressure and embolism. Considering the cocaine abuse and the mild head trauma, in our patient vasospasm was thought to be the mechanism involved in the cerebral infarction, which proved a challenge to diagnose in the emergency room.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tobacco
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3/9. Taking the physician out of "physician shopping": a case series of clinical problems associated with internet purchases of medication.

    In the united states, psychoactive prescription medications rank second only to marijuana as drugs of abuse (if tobacco and alcohol are discounted). Physician shopping--visiting multiple physicians simply to procure prescriptions--has been a traditional method for acquiring drugs illicitly. As community-based efforts to curtail physician shopping have expanded, drug abusers have turned increasingly to the internet. Illegal internet pharmacies, increasing rapidly in number during the past decade and requiring neither prescription nor physician oversight, offer minimal interference to obtaining drugs. With no physician involved, patients cease to be patients. Instead, they become consumers able to buy prescription medications, even controlled substances, from anonymous providers offering no ongoing treatment relationship and taking no responsibility for the drugs dispensed. When complications occur, these consumers become patients, turning back to the traditional medical system to manage overdoses, addictions, and drug adverse effects and interactions. We present a case series illustrating some of the medical problems that resulted from drugs bought on-line illegally.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tobacco
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4/9. adolescent substance use: brief interventions by emergency care providers.

    Use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs plays a major role in adolescent morbidity and mortality. When under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, adolescents are at increased risk for injuries, unprotected sex, or interpersonal violence. Alcohol and other drugs are major factors in adolescent deaths, contributing to motor vehicle crashes, homicides, and suicides. Adolescents tend to have shorter substance use histories therefore they often experience emergency/acute care health treatment resulting from substance use related trauma and/or overdose. Substance use screening of adolescents who present to an Emergency Department (ED) is vitally important. The CRAFFT is a valid and reliable screening tool that was developed for use with adolescents. If an adolescent screens positive, then the next step is to determine their stage of use and readiness for change in preparation for doing a brief intervention. Helping patients to recognize the potential relation between their substance use and health related consequences, may motivate them to decrease their use for harm reduction. motivational interviewing is an effective, evidence-based approach to helping people change their high risk behavior.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tobacco
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5/9. Smokeless tobacco addiction: a threat to the oral and systemic health of the child and adolescent.

    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) within the united states has increased greatly in recent years, especially among adolescent boys and young men. Recent national data completed from several large scale studies indicate that 10-12 million Americans use some form of ST. Representing a significant systemic and oral health risk, ST usage can produce a wide range of negative effects on both soft and hard oral tissues. These oral conditions include bad breath, discolored teeth and restorative materials, excessive tooth surface wear (abrasion), decreased ability to taste and smell, gingival (gum) recession, advanced periodontal soft and hard tissue destruction, tooth loss, soft tissue erythema and leukoplakia. Long-term ST usage is directly correlated to an increased risk of cancer of the mouth, larynx, throat and esophagus. Much of the destruction of oral tissues is related to the localization of the tobacco quid; i.e., it is habitually held in only one spot in the mouth. nicotine from ST can activate the sympathetic nervous system thereby significantly increasing heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac stroke volume and output and coronary blood flow. A common misconception is that ST is a 'safe' alternative to smoking cigarettes. Several recent Surgeon General's Reports list ST as being addictive. It is highly possible that ST users will 'graduate' to cigarettes if they eventually conclude that these products are socially unacceptable, inconvenient or out of vogue. Health professionals, educators, parents and schoolchildren need to be informed about the significant health risks associated with ST use.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tobacco
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6/9. nicotine gum dependency: a positive addiction.

    Prolonged nicotine gum dependency may provide a therapeutic interlude for the compulsive or addictive patient during the transition from smoking to a tobacco-free state. We present a case report of an addicted man with asthma who successfully converted his tobacco dependency to the daily use of nicotine gum for four years. No adverse effects were seen. nicotine gum has potential as substitution therapy for prolonged treatment in a highly addictive, compulsive patient.
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ranking = 0.66666666666667
keywords = tobacco
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7/9. Tobacco chewing an unusual case of drug dependence.

    This case report is that of a 53-year-old man without current evidence of significant psychiatric disorder who requested treatment for dependence on chewing-tobbaco. During his successful treatment in the alcoholism and Drug Dependence Unit, we noted several similarities between his tobacco chewing and other drug dependencies.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tobacco
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8/9. Increased psychological distress in post-partum, cocaine-using mothers.

    This study investigated psychological symptoms, self-reported postpartum by poor, primarily African American women who used cocaine during pregnancy. Ninety-nine cocaine-using mothers (COC ) were compared to 44 noncocaine-using mothers (COC-) on standardized measures of psychological distress and verbal comprehension. mothers were interviewed to determined extent of drug involvement. COC mothers reported using alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco at two to three times the rate of comparison mothers during pregnancy and reported earlier initiation of marijuana use. COC women were more likely to admit to interpersonal difficulties and to report phobic anxiety and paranoid ideational symptoms. The COC group was also more likely to have clinically elevated scores on subscales indicating feelings of personal inadequacy, phobic anxiety, and paranoia. The use of cocaine, in combination with either alcohol or marijuana, was the best predictor of psychoticism, hostility, and total number of distress symptoms.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tobacco
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9/9. Alcohol and drug misuse in the nursing home.

    The misuse of alcohol or drugs is a common and frequently neglected problem among nursing home residents. The misuse of prescription medications is particularly prevalent, but tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs are all subject of misuse by nursing home residents. This article reviews the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of substance misuse in nursing homes, including alcohol, illicit drugs, tobacco, and pyscho-active medications. Regulations regarding the prescription of psycho-active drugs in nursing homes is also discussed.
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ranking = 0.66666666666667
keywords = tobacco
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