Cases reported "Superinfection"

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1/3. Single nucleotide insertion in the 5'-untranslated region of hepatitis c virus with clearance of the viral rna in a liver transplant recipient during acute hepatitis b virus superinfection.

    hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection is an important etiology in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) world-wide. Antiviral therapy-related clearance of HCV rna may occur both in patients with chronic HCV infection and in transplanted patients for HCV-related liver cirrhosis, but the role of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV containing the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which directs the translation of the viral open reading frame has not hitherto been evaluated. We studied the 5'-UTR in an HCV-infected recipient of a liver graft that showed spontaneous clearance of HCV rna during an acute hepatitis b virus (HBV) superinfection. Sequencing of the 5'-UTR of HCV showed a nucleotide A insertion at position 193 of the IRES.
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keywords = rna
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2/3. hepatitis c flare due to superinfection by genotype 4 in an HCV genotype 1b chronic carrier.

    We report here on a patient affected by chronic hepatitis c who developed acute hepatitis c virus (HCV) superinfection with replacement of genotype 1b by genotype 4. The history revealed no risk factors for a new exposure to HCV, with the exception of colonoscopy with mucosal biopsy performed about 3 months before. This report underlines the absence of an effective immune-mediated cross-protection against different HCV genotypes. Moreover, the possible relationship between HCV infection and colonoscopy points out the importance of strict adherence to international guidelines for disinfection and cleaning of invasive diagnostic tools for all subjects examined, including HCV chronic carriers.
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keywords = rna
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3/3. Infective endocarditis caused by an indigenous bacterium (gemella morbillorum).

    A case of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by a rare pathogen, gemella morbillorum, is presented. Because of persistent low-grade fever after dental treatment, the patient was given oral antibiotics. Whereas he was diagnosed as having aortic regurgitation by a cardiologist, and IE was not suggested unfortunately. After long-term chemotherapy over five months, he was aware of nocturnal dyspnea and gemella morbillorum was detected by blood culture. Then, he was treated with intravenous administration of Penicillin-G, and underwent surgical operation for valve replacement. No cases of IE due to this organism have been reported in japan.
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keywords = rna
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