Cases reported "Superinfection"

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1/81. pulmonary artery fibrous bands: report of a case with extensive lung infarction and superinfection with coccidioides immitis, Pseudomonas, and acid-fast bacilli.

    A 46-year-old woman presented with shortness of breath and frequent lower respiratory tract infections. A ventilation-perfusion scan showed markedly reduced perfusion of the right lung, and pulmonary arteriogram showed stenosis of the right pulmonary artery. A right pneumonectomy revealed dense white fibrous bands partially occluding the pulmonary artery branches and two large abscess cavities filled with pus in the upper and lower lobes. Microscopic examination revealed extensive necrosis of lung parenchyma, suppurative granulomatous inflammation with coccidioides immitis organisms and rare acid-fast bacilli. pulmonary artery fibrous bands were originally believed to be congenital; however, they are now known to be sequelae of thromboembolic phenomena. ( info)

2/81. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis c virus: molecular evidence of superinfection by homologous virus in children.

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Vertical transmission of hepatitis c virus (HCV) is well established but its incidence is low. To assess the molecular evidence of mother-to-infant transmission or intrafamilial transmission of HCV, the NS5 B region and the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2/NS1 region of the HCV genome from each member of a family were investigated. methods: A 35-year-old mother with chronic hepatitis c virus infection and her four infected boys were studied. The same HCV 1a genotype was found in all five. Phylogenetic analysis was done by the neighbor-joining, the maximum likelihood, and the maximum parsimony methods. RESULTS: Comparison of the phylogenetic trees in the NS5B and HVR1 regions showed that the sequences in the children were more closely related to the population of variants of their own mother than to any genotype la sequence available in the databases. However, four HVR1 clones from two brothers (E2 and E3) had a strong homology, but were significantly divergent from the variants of the mother. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a cluster of HCV strains exists in the family and that E3 could have been superinfected by E2 HCV strains and reciprocally. In conclusion, phylogenetic analysis through variable regions of the genome suggests that at least two modes of transmission are involved in this family: perinatal and horizontal. ( info)

3/81. Clearance of HCV rna in a chronic hepatitis c virus-infected patient during acute hepatitis b virus superinfection.

    The routes of hepatitis b virus and hepatitis c virus transmission are quite similar and coexistence of both viruses in one patient is not a rare phenomenon. Until now, the natural course of liver diseases induced by coinfections has not been well documented and the mechanisms of interaction between the two viruses and the human host have not been fully clarified. We report the case of a patient suffering from chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis c virus who developed an acute hepatitis b virus superinfection. serum hepatitis c virus ribonucleic acid became undetectable by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction at diagnosis of acute hepatitis b virus infection. At the same time, there was a striking increase in the serum concentrations of the antibodies against C22 and C33c hepatitis c virus antigens. Four months after clinical resolution of the acute hepatitis, hepatitis B surface antigen was undetectable in serum and three months later antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen appeared. Two years after acute hepatitis b virus infection, the patient has had no relapse of markers for viral replication of hepatitis b virus. transaminases are within the reference range and hepatitis c virus ribonucleic acid is undetectable in both serum and liver tissue. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis b virus infection stimulated a specific humoral response against hepatitis c virus as well as triggering non-specific defense mechanisms which finally eliminated both viruses. ( info)

4/81. Microbiological features of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome periodontitis.

    Papillon-Lefevre syndrome patients exhibit hyperkeratosis palmo-plantaris and severe periodontitis. The syndrome is an autosomal recessive trait, but the mechanism of periodontal destruction is not known. This report presents the clinical and microbiological features of an 11-year old girl with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome. Clinical examination included conventional periodontal measurements and radiographic analysis. In samples from 3 deep periodontal lesions, the occurrence of major suspected periodontopathic bacteria was determined by selective and non-selective culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification, and the presence of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr type 1 virus by a nested-PCR detection method. 10 of 22 available teeth demonstrated severe periodontal breakdown. Major cultivable bacteria included actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (3.4% of total isolates), prevotella nigrescens (16.4%), fusobacterium nucleatum (14.3%) and peptostreptococcus micros (10.6%). A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. nigrescens, porphyromonas gingivalis and eikenella corrodens were identified by PCR analysis. The patient's non-affected parents and older brother revealed several periodontal pathogens but not A. actinomycetemcomitans. The viral examination demonstrated cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr type 1 virus in the subgingival sample of the Papillon-Lefevre syndrome patient. The father and brother yielded subgingival cytomegalovirus but not Epstein-Barr type 1 virus. We hypothesize that human herpesviruses in concert with A. actinomycetemcomitans play important roles in the development of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome periodontitis. ( info)

5/81. In vivo down regulation of HIV replication after hepatitis c superinfection.

    There are increasing molecular and clinical evidences that the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can be modified by coinfection with other viruses. The objective was to investigate the viral interaction between HIV and hepatitis c virus (HCV) after HCV superinfection. A 16 year-old pregnant woman was evaluated because of icteric acute hepatitis. Admission laboratory tests showed the following results: ALT 877 IU/L; AST 1822 IU/L; bilirubin 6.79 mg/dl. Diagnosis of acute HCV was based on detection of serum HCV rna by PCR and anti-HCV seroconversion. ELISA for anti HIV testing was positive and confirmed by western blot. serum markers for other viruses were negative. The patient was followed during 19 months; serum samples were taken monthly during this period for detection of plasma HIV and HCV rna. Levels of plasma HIV-rna were positive in all samples tested before and after the onset of acute hepatitis c. Six months later and a for two month period, and 13 months later for a period of one month HIV viremia was undetectable; then HIV-rna in plasma was detectable again. In conclusion, HCV superinfection may have temporarily interfered with HIV replication in our patient. The following observations support our hypothesis: it has been demonstrated that hiv-1 replication is suppressed by HCV core protein which has transcriptional regulation properties of several viral and cellular promoters. Clinical implications of this event are not generally known and the interaction between these two viruses in dual infections is worth considering. ( info)

6/81. Ligneous conjunctivitis in a girl with severe type I plasminogen deficiency.

    BACKGROUND: Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare form of chronic recurrent pseudomembranous disease and may be associated with systemic membranous pathological changes. Recently ligneous conjunctivitis has been linked to severe type I plasminogen deficiency. We report on a patient with plasminogen deficiency and severe bilateral ligneous conjunctivitis. A new treatment approach and its outcome in this patient are described. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 9-month-old Turkish girl with massive swelling of the eyelids and hard white pseudomembranes on both lids. The conjunctival smear was positive for streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical diagnosis was: ligneous conjunctivitis with superinfection. Histological investigation showed fibrin as major component of the pseudomembranes. The coagulation analyses revealed decreased plasminogen activity (<5%; normal 80-120%) and decreased plasminogen antigen (<0.4 mg/dl; normal 6-25 mg/dl). The failure of surgical therapy led to the attempt at treatment with intravenous lys-plasminogen. A significant improvement of the ocular symptoms occurred; stabilization with no recurrent pseudomembranes could be achieved for 6 months after treatment. DISCUSSION: The initial amelioration of symptoms in our patient after systemic replacement therapy confirms the etiological importance of plasminogen deficiency in the development of ligneous conjunctivitis. Curative treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis is still not available. However, intravenous application of plasminogen offers new possibilities in therapy, although long-term treatment seems necessary. ( info)

7/81. delayed diagnosis of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

    We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who presented with a confusing spectrum of systemic symptoms after starting steroid therapy for a rheumatological disorder. The diagnosis of disseminated strongyloidiasis was made after a delay of 2 weeks. This paper outlines the symptom complex with which this critically ill woman presented, the course of her disease and the treatment of her disseminated strongyloidiasis. ( info)

8/81. superinfection of posttraumatic retroperitoneal hematoma secondary to ascending urinary tract infection.

    Retroperitoneal hematoma is a common feature after blunt abdominal trauma, but secondary infection of these hematomas is a rare complication and its mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We report a case of infected retroperitoneal hematoma secondary to renal trauma related to ascending urinary tract infection. ( info)

9/81. superinfection with a transmissible strain of pseudomonas aeruginosa in adults with cystic fibrosis chronically colonised by P aeruginosa.

    Infection with transmissible strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa can occur in uncolonised patients, but cross infection (superinfection) of patients already colonised withP aeruginosa has not been reported. With genotypic identification, we found superinfection by a multiresistant transmissible strain of P aeruginosa in four patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who were already colonised by unique strains of P aeruginosa. No evidence of environmental contamination was found, but all patients became superinfected after contact with colonised individuals during inpatient stays. inpatients with CF who are colonised with P aeruginosa should be separated by strain type. Such strain typing can only be reliably done by genomic methods, but this has resource implications. ( info)

10/81. Reactivation of hepatitis c virus superinfection in a patient seropositive for hepatitis B e antigen.

    During the course of chronic hepatitis b virus (HBV) infection, a patient seropositive for hepatitis B e antigen experienced four episodes of acute hepatic necroinflammation. serum HBV-dna concentration elevated immediately before the first and third exacerbations, whereas serum hepatitis c virus (HCV) rna was detected during the second and fourth exacerbations. The nucleotide sequences of HCV hypervariable region derived from samples of the two exacerbations were identical. Interestingly, "de novo" seroconversion of anti-HCV antibody (Abbott HCV EIA 3.0) followed by reversion occurred in both the second and fourth exacerbations with low sample/cutoff ratios. Immunoblot analysis using a line-immunoassay (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III) revealed a single positive band (C1) developing after the second exacerbation. These data indicate that the second exacerbation in this patient was caused by newly acquired acute HCV superinfection, whereas the fourth exacerbation was likely due to reactivation of the previous HCV infection. Recognition of such a case suggests that the presence of de novo seroconversion of anti-HCV may indicate either reactivation or acute superinfection of HCV in a patient seropositive for hepatitis B e antigen. ( info)
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