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1/12. Corticobasal degeneration: an autopsy case clinically diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy.

    We report an autopsy case diagnosed clinically as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), but neuropathologically confirmed as corticobasal degeneration (CBD). A 56-year-old Japanese woman slowly developed parkinsonism, dementia, character change, followed by vertical gaze palsy and dystonia. Brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cerebral atrophy with severe shrinkage of the brain stem tegmentum. The SPECT images using 123I-IMP disclosed symmetrical hypoperfusion in the frontal lobes. She died of respiratory failure at the age of 71.Gross inspection of the brain showed diffuse, symmetrical atrophy of the cerebrum and marked atrophy of the Luysian body, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and nuclei of the brain stem tegmentum. Microscopically, neuronal loss and fibrillary gliosis were observed in the Luysian body, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and nuclei of the brain stem tegmentum. The cerebellar dentate nucleus showed mild neuronal loss with some grumose degeneration. neurofibrillary tangles were found only in the Luysian body, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei, whilst tau-positive inclusions were observed more extensively. Astrocytic plaques and swollen achromatic neurones were found in the postcentral gyrus. There were no tuft-shaped astrocytes in the brain. The clinicopathological similarities and differences between PSP and CBD are discussed.
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2/12. Progressive supranuclear palsy on guam.

    This is the first report demonstrating that progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) exists on guam. This 75-year-old Guamanian Chamorro patient with slight dementia and rigidity with restriction of ocular up gaze was diagnosed as parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) of guam clinically. However, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were scarcely seen in the cerebral cortices and hippocampus, but many NFTs, composed of 15-17 nm straight tubules, were detected in the subthalamic nucleus and brain stem. A large number of tuft-shaped astrocytes were observed in the putamen and motor cortex, and numerous argyrophilic grains were seen in the CA1 and subiculum. These pathological findings are different from those of PDC and consistent with PSP. The present case indicates that PSP and PDC clinically resemble each other, and that precise neuropathological examination is indispensable for the final diagnosis of the patient with parkinsonism, dementia and disturbance of vertical external ocular movement.
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3/12. Mixed multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy: a clinical and pathological report of one case.

    We report a patient who showed pathological features of both multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) at autopsy. The clinical features included severe cerebellar ataxia, autonomic failure, and rigid-akinetic parkinsonism. The clinical diagnosis was MSA. Pathological examination showed severe neuronal loss with gliosis in the putamen, substantia nigra, inferior olive, and the pontine nucleus, and numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions. In addition, moderate neuronal loss with gliosis was observed in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus, and neurofibrillary tangles and tufted astrocytes were seen in the basal ganglia and the brain stem. These findings indicate that the patient had both MSA and PSP. Double-labeling immunofluorescence in the brain stem showed alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity localized in the oligodendrocytes and phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity in the neurons and the glia. Co-existence of synucleinopathy and tauopathy is rare.
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4/12. Progressive supranuclear palsy presenting with primary progressive aphasia--clinicopathological report of an autopsy case.

    We report a Japanese autopsy case of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The male patient was 74 years old at the time of death. At age 64, he developed non-fluent aphasia that progressed slowly over 8 years, eventually associated with behavioral abnormality, postural instability, and dysphagia at 2 years prior to his death. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at age 73 demonstrated marked atrophy of the frontal lobes, particularly on the left side. Neuropathological examination revealed the typical pathology of PSP: loss of neurons, gliosis, occurrence of neurofibrillary tangles, oligodendroglial coiled bodies, and tuft-shaped astrocytes in the frontal cortex, associated with argyrophilic threads in the underlying white matter, in the basal ganglia, including the thalamus, globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus, and in the brainstem nuclei, including the substantia nigra, pontine nucleus, and inferior olivary nucleus. No astrocytic plaques or ballooned neurons were observed. Protein analysis revealed accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau of 68 and 64 kDa consisting of the four repeat tau isoforms. We conclude that the present case represented PSP with an 8-year history of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although focal cortical symptoms in PSP are rare or absent, we should keep in mind the possibility of atypical PSP in which cortical pathology is predominant, particularly in the frontal lobe, and could result in PPA.
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5/12. 4-repeat tauopathy sharing pathological and biochemical features of corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    We report a 67-year-old man with 4-repeat (4R) tauopathy sharing both features of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Although CBD and PSP have a common pathological feature that 4R tau accumulates in neurons and glia, recent pathological studies have confirmed differences between the two disorders. Clinical features of the present case were asymmetrical apraxia, parkinsonism, memory disturbance, disorientation and left limb myoclonus with a 5-year history. Pathological features were the widespread occurrence of 4R tau-positive structures including pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic plaques, tufted astrocytes, coiled bodies and argyrophilic threads. Biochemically, immunoblotting of insoluble tau demonstrated the low molecular fragments of 37 kDa and 33 kDa observed in typical CBD and PSP, respectively, in addition to the presence of 4R tau isoforms. The present case shared tau-related pathological and biochemical features of CBD and PSP. These findings support that CBD and PSP are closely associated disorders having a pathogenesis common to 4R tauopathy.
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6/12. Glial localization of four-repeat tau in atypical progressive supranuclear palsy.

    In the present case, a patient in whom limb apraxia and asymmetrical parkinsonism developed suggesting corticobasal degeneration, is reported. Neuropathologic examination revealed numerous tufted astrocytes in the precentral cortex in addition to the characteristic pathologic findings of PSP. Therefore, on the basis of clinicopathologic features, atypical progressive supranuclear palsy was diagnosed. In addition, the brain tissue of the present patient was investigated with an antibody specific for four-repeat tau (4R-tau). In the precentral cortex, numerous tau-positive tufted astrocytes, pretangles, and threads were positive for 4R-tau. Using a confocal microscopy we demonstrated that tufted astrocytes positive for 4R-tau were adjacent to astrocytes positive for GFAP. The present findings suggest that accumulation of four-repeat tau in astrocytes is a degenerative process rather than a reactive process.
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7/12. Discrepancy between clinical and pathological diagnoses of CBD and PSP.

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are often clinically confused with each other. Moreover, the discrepancy between clinical and pathological diagnoses of CBD and PSP are still controversial. We report here two atypical cases of PSP and CBD. A 73-year old woman was admitted with right hand rigidity, limb kinetic apraxia and cortical sensory loss. Brain atrophy, hypoperfusion and hypometabolism predominantly in the left frontoparietal lobes indicated CBD clinically. Pathological studies revealed neuronal loss and spongy change without ballooned neurons (BN) in the cerebral cortex. Modified Gallyas-Braak (G-B) staining revealed neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and tufted astrocytes, indicating pathological diagnosis of PSP. A 75-year-old man admitted with vertical gaze palsy, neck dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Atrophy of the frontal lobes and tegmentum of the midbrain and symmetrical frontal hypoperfusion in SPECT indicated PSP. However, neuronal loss and BN in the frontal lobes and clusters of astrocytic plaques indicated CBD pathologically. The G-B staining was useful for differentiating between CBD and PSP, but our atypical cases bring up a new issue about differential diagnosis of CBD and PSP.
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8/12. Atypical progressive supranuclear palsy underlying progressive apraxia of speech and nonfluent aphasia.

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a clinicopathological entity typically presenting as an akinetic rigid syndrome with early falls, axial rigidity, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and levodopa resistance. Pathological features consist of tau deposition in neuronal and glial cells located mainly in subcortical and brainstem structures. Rare cases with the pathological diagnosis of atypical PSP have been described in which neocortical tau deposition is more widespread than what is usually seen in typical PSP. Progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) is a syndrome characterized by spontaneous nonfluent speech and early preserved comprehension of language. Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder that may be a feature of PNFA. We report the clinical and pathological findings of four cases that presented with features most consistent with PNFA predominated by AOS. Pathological features in these four cases included the typical features of PSP subcortically and in brainstem structures, but combined with tau-positive neuronal and glial pathology in the neocortex.Comprehensive semiquantitative analyses of tau burden including neurofibrillary tangles and pretangles, coiled bodies, tufted astrocytes and threads were undertaken in the four cases of atypical PSP and compared to 10 cases of typical PSP. Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated that in atypical PSP, the pathology shifts from subcortical grey and brainstem regions, commonly affected in typical PSP, towards neocortical regions. This shift in pathology accounts for the presentation of PNFA and AOS observed in our patients, as well as the lack of classic features of PSP. These cases demonstrate that atypical PSP can present as AOS and PNFA without the classic features of PSP.
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9/12. Pick's disease with Pick bodies combined with progressive supranuclear palsy without tuft-shaped astrocytes: a clinical, neuroradiologic and pathological study of an autopsied case.

    We report clinical, neuroradiologic features, and neuropathologic findings of a 76-year-old man with coexistent Pick's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. The patient presented with loss of recent memory, abnormal behavior and change in personality at the age of 60. The symptoms were progressive. Three years later, repetitive or compulsive behavior became prominent. About 9 years after onset, he had difficulty moving and became bedridden because of a fracture of his left leg. His condition gradually deteriorated and he developed mutism and became vegetative. The patient died from pneumonia 16 years after the onset of symptoms. Serial MRI scans showed progressive cortex atrophy, especially in the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. Macroscopic inspection showed severe atrophy of the whole brain, including cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum. Microscopic observations showed extensive superficial spongiosis and severe neuronal loss with gliosis in the second and third cortical layers in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex. There were Pick cells and argyrophilic Pick bodies, which were tau- and ubiquitin-positive in neurons of layers II-III of the above-mentioned cortex. Numerous argyrophilic Pick bodies were observed in the hippocampus, especially in the dentate fascia. In addition, moderate to severe loss of neurons was found with gliosis and a lot of Gallyas/tau-positive globus neurofibrillary tangles in the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, substantia nigra, locus coeruleus and dentate nucleus. Numerous thorned-astrocytes and coiled bodies but no-tuft shaped astrocytes were noted in the basal ganglion, brainstem and cerebellar white matter. In conclusion, these histopathological features were compatible with classical Pick's disease and coexistence with progressive supranuclear palsy without tuft-shaped astrocytes.
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10/12. An autopsy case of PSP with astrocytic inclusions.

    Argyrophilic glial cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in astrocytes (Astrocytic Inclusions) in a case of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The inclusions were predominantly distributed in the lenticular nucleus and midbrain, but not in the cerebral cortex, white matter nor in the thalamus. When examined by double staining with Gallyas silver and GFAP, they resembled the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and were tau positive. The distribution of these inclusions was not related to that of NFT. These inclusions indicate that astrocytes were involved in the same pathological changes as NFT. Argyrophilic inclusions were also observed in oligodendroglias on Gallyas silver staining. They appeared coiled and located mainly in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter.
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