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1/370. Spatz-Lindenberg disease: a rare cause of vascular dementia.

    BACKGROUND: Isolated cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans (Spatz-Lindenberg disease) is not well recognized as a cause of vascular dementia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old woman presented with dementia and pyramidal signs. neuroimaging showed multiple areas of white matter change. brain biopsy showed intimal thickening of the walls of leptomeningeal and intraparenchymal arteries, almost to complete occlusion, with an intact internal elastic lamina and media and without inflammation or infiltration. The cortex showed only moderate gliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Spatz-Lindenberg disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia. Additional studies of its pathogenesis are required to determine appropriate treatment.
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keywords = cortex
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2/370. Unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy followed by contralateral retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a syndrome.

    We report the first patient who had bilateral pheochromocytoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a syndrome (MEN 2a) and underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy followed by contralateral retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy 2 years later. The postoperative course was uneventful both times, and the patient was cured of hypertension without any need for steroid replacement. Endoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a minimally invasive procedure for pheochromocytoma with mild symptoms. We believe that this procedure has considerable potential for treating bilateral pheochromocytoma, which is frequently observed in patients with MEN 2a.
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ranking = 13.315307546553
keywords = adrenal
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3/370. Familial macroglossia-omphalocele syndrome.

    A kindred is reported in which 8 infants were affected with the macroglossia-omphalocele syndrome. Their characteristics varied from an almost complete clinical picture to nodular hyperplasia with cytomegaly of the adrenals as the only manifestation of the disease. Chromosome analysis was normal. This syndrome appears to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, with a high proportion of incomplete clinical forms. The index patient also has signs of the rubinstein-taybi syndrome. The simultaneous occurrence of these two syndromes is probably a fortuitous event.
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ranking = 1.2104825042321
keywords = adrenal
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4/370. Cushing's syndrome caused by nodular adrenal hyperplasia in children with McCune-Albright syndrome.

    McCune-Albright syndrome consists of fibrous dysplasia of bone, cafe-au-lait skin pigmentation, and endocrine dysfunction (usually precocious puberty). Other endocrine abnormalities occur in a minority of patients, and of these, Cushing's syndrome is the least often recognized. We present 5 children (4 girls) with features of McCune-Albright syndrome who had Cushing's syndrome in the infantile period (<6 months). In 2 children spontaneous resolution occurred, but the remaining 3 required bilateral adrenalectomy. In addition, all 4 girls have experienced precocious puberty, and 3 children demonstrated radiologic evidence of nephrocalcinosis. Understanding of the underlying defect causing McCune-Albright syndrome emphasizes the importance of searching for other endocrine dysfunction in these children.
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ranking = 6.0524125211604
keywords = adrenal
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5/370. A novel mutation of the doublecortin gene in Japanese patients with X-linked lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia.

    The doublecortin (DCX) gene was recently found to be involved in patients with X-linked lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome. We have studied the coding regions of the DCX gene in 11 Japanese patients with cortical dysplasia and have identified three different mutations (R186C in exon 3, R272X and R303X in exon 5) in four sporadic female cases. R272X, which has been detected in two unrelated cases, is a novel mutation. Although the number of cases studied remains limited, exon 5 may be a common mutational site in Japanese patients in contrast to many previous reports concerning exons 2 and 3.
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keywords = cortex
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6/370. Severe, non X-linked congenital microcephaly with absence of the pyramidal tracts in two siblings.

    In two siblings (a female and a male neonate), severe microcephaly, bilateral absence of the pyramids, severe hypoplasia of the cerebral peduncles, and dysplasia of the inferior olives was found together with microphthalmia, facial malformations and multiple contractures of the extremities. In both cases, the cerebral hemispheres otherwise showed a more or less normal gyral pattern with the insula incompletely covered by the opercula, and a tom but otherwise intact corpus callosum. In case 2, congenital cataract was also observed. The present cases can be characterized as a rapidly fatal, familial syndrome, probably transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, and have several features in common with the Neu-Laxova syndrome. They differ in having a less severe form of microcephaly, a rather normal cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, an apparently normal corpus callosum, no gross cerebellar abnormalities, and no other organ malformations. The present cases belong to a group of heterogeneous syndromes which have microcephaly, ocular and facial malformations, multiple contractures, and ichthyosis-like skin in common.
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keywords = cortex
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7/370. Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome: a genetic microangiopathy?

    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) (McKusick 225750) is an autosomal recessive disease with onset in the 1st year of life, resulting in progressive microcephaly, calcification of cerebral white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia, generalized cerebral demyelination and a chronic low-grade CSF lymphocytosis, without evidence of infection. We report the autopsy of a patient who died with this disorder at the age of 17 years. Findings were severe microencephaly, diffuse but inhomogeneous cerebral white matter loss with associated astrocytosis, calcific deposits in the white matter, thalami and basal ganglia. neocortex and cerebellar cortex were affected by wedge-shaped microinfarctions. Small vessels showed calcification in the media, adventitia and perivascular spaces. These findings are similar to some previous publications that in retrospect may have been AGS, but this is the first reported cerebral microangiopathy in which the diagnosis AGS was made during lifetime. This report provides evidence that microangiopathy plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AGS.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cortex
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8/370. A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and watery diarrhoea syndrome due to a VIP-producing adrenal phaeochromocytoma.

    A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and watery diarrhoea syndrome due to a VIP-producing adrenal phaeochromocytoma (Case Report). J Intern Med 1999; 246: 231-234. A 43-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 suffered from watery diarrhoea syndrome induced by excessive production of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in an adrenal phaeochromocytoma. This case report emphasizes that patients with neurofibromatosis are prone to develop more than one disease induced by tumours originating from the neural crest. Since excessive VIP production in a phaeochromocytoma may mask the symptoms of catecholamine overproduction, and in view of the therapeutic consequences, neurofibromatosis patients with hyperVIP-aemia must be checked for the presence of a phaeochromocytoma.
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ranking = 7.2628950253924
keywords = adrenal
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9/370. Peters' anomaly with the fetal transfusion syndrome.

    Of identical twins with the fetal transfusion syndrome, the second twin who was anemic and hypoxemic from early gestation had Peters' anomaly by histologic examination of the host cornea excised during corneal transplantation at 7 months of age. The absence of a normally positioned lens with the incorporation of lens epithelium, capsule, and cortex within the posterior corneal stroma suggested a developmental disturbance in the separation of the lens from the cornea. The severe lenticular disturbance, microphthalmos, and fetal growth retardation in this case reflected early anemia and the resultant hypoxemia. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the fetal transfusion syndrome and Peters' anomaly have been associated.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
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10/370. Diffuse pachygyria with cerebellar hypoplasia: a milder form of microlissencephaly or a new genetic syndrome?

    We report on 2 families with diffuse pachygyria and cerebellar hypoplasia, who presented hypotonia, ataxia, seizures, and developmental delay since infancy. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed decreased gyral formation in the cerebral cortex and marked hypoplasia in the cerebellum. Cerebellar hypoplasia is often associated with type 2 lissencephaly; however, our cases showed no polymicrogyria, and their clinical findings were quite mild compared with those of microlissencephaly. Their characteristic phenotype suggested a new genetic syndrome, which was possibly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
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